Tuesday, July 31, 2012

art rules

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ART RULES


CBD an abbreviation of the words Central Business District. The words Central Business District means the commercial centre of a city. This is the part of the city which has shops, offices, and places of leisure, high land values as there is intense competition for space and also transport routes meet here. During the day there are many people in the CBD and there usually is congestion on the roads. Department stores and chain stores are found in the centre as they need access to large numbers of customers and they can afford the high rents. Buildings are tall, building density is very high and very few people live in the CBD. The housing areas near to the CBD tend to be old. This is because new developments spread out from the middle, leaving the centre the oldest part of the city.


In some parts of the CBD there is quite often a grouping of similar activities as it is mutually beneficial e.g. five cinemas in Leister square, London. This happens because business’s will get more customers if they go to an area that is already known to have shops of the same business. Sometimes parts of the CBD are pedestrianised to make it safer for pedestrians.


Norwich has been around since the 10th century. It was once the second most important city in the country. It houses a cathedral (once the tallest building in Western Europe), a castle (built by William the Conqueror himself) and city walls that enclose an even larger area than that of London’s. Because of this great history of Norwich, Norwich city centre has always been a busy and prosperous place. What adds to this is the famous market that still sells its goods to people today. Over the past Twenty Five years though, Norwich city centre has grown immensely. Many streets that were just normal housing are now apart of the high streets. A mall was built and now a second one in production. Quiet backstreets and places where factories once stood have given way to nightclubs and restaurants. Overall Norwich is now busier and more active than ever before. Its CBD is growing outward and people from all over the country are coming here to shop, see the history and live in the growing city of Norwich.


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Thursday, July 26, 2012

CIDER WITH ROSIE

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Cider with Rosie presentation


Cider with Rosie is a memoir of a childhood by Laurie Lee. He shares with us what it was like to grow up without a father, his relationships with his mother, sisters, friends, turning into a man, sexual awakening with Rosie, innocence and naivety and what it was like when he finally lost these characteristic that made him the sweet boy.


In the first chapter Lee gives a three year olds perception and misconceptions small in relation to objects around him, for example when he got lost in the grass, on the families’ arrival to their new home, “I had never been so close to grass before. It towered above me and all around me, each blade tattooed with tiger-skins of sunlight”. The sense of adventure is communicated through Lee’s use of metaphors and similes.


One of Lee’s major influences was that of his mother, a whole chapter is devoted to her. He trusted and admired her, when the stranger appeared in the kitchen Lee writes “but he was no tramp or he wouldn’t be in the kitchen” and “he was a soldier, because mother said so”. This tells us how much influence his mother had over him.


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He had a warm and loving relationship with his mother; the security he felt from his mother was shown by her sharing a bed with him, as a young child making him feel special from the others and so secure. His mother was silent while his sisters told him he had to move into his brother’s bed “for a bit” when he got older, he was promised that he would return later to her bed. He never did return to her bed, and he described this as the “first betrayal”. In return he says “I grew a little tougher, a little colder, and turned my attention more to the outside world, which was now emerging visibly through the mist”. When Lee says he grew a little tougher, to me, it sounds as if he thought that this betrayal of not been allowed to sleep in his mother’s bed was the end of the world. I also get the impression by his statement that he is growing up and that he has realised that there are other things in life for him to explore.


As the innocence and naivety wore off, Lee began to take an interest in the opposite sex, namely Jo, who was a classmate. She used to strip off her clothes and allow Lee to examine her body, I think this was just innocent curiosity on his behalf because in Lee’s school days, sex education was not heard of and he had to understand how girls were different to boys. I think his first sexual encounter was with Rosie who enticed him with Cider, his first taste and a new experience. He drank and became drunk. Afterwards he says “I felt like a giant; I swung from the trees and plunged my arms into nettles to show her”. This is the moment in Lee’s life that he changes from a boy into a man. This encounter with Rosie was obviously a key theme in his childhood as why would he put this memory as the title. Was it because at this time in his life he finally became a man, signifying the end of his childhood? This is arguable.





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Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Fluctuation in Pip

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The Fascinating Fluctuation in Pip


In Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, a young man by the name of Pip experiences “great opportunities” provided by a secret benefactor. Being an orphan since infancy, his driving ambition is to better his station in life; unfortunately, Pip rejects his closest friends in order to achieve his social goals, and it is only after much heartbreak and disappointment that he realizes that good friends are far more valuable than wealth. Through his “great expectations”, Pip evolves from a frightful innocence, to the snobbery of being a gentleman, and finally to a good, solid man.


The book starts out with Pip living as a regular, common boy. Raised by his sister “by hand” and he now lives with her and her husband. As of now, Pip is not a known boy throughout the area, or a strong, strict object of power, but a mere surviving existence. Therefore, he has a soft, regulating personality, unlike a confident, bold personality of a businessman, or gentleman. In other words, his personality is able to be affected easily, as it is not solid. One Christmas Eve, Pip is confronted by a frightening man, large and mud-smeared, with prison irons attached to his leg. The fearsome man questions Pip exclusively terrifying the boy extremely, “Keep still, you little devil, or I’ll cut your throat!” (). Pip responds, “Oh! Don’t cut my throat, sir, pray don’t do it sir.” () The man demands that Pip bring him a file and some food by the next day, and that if he doesn’t, his liver and heart will be torn out by his companion. Young Pips willingness to provide information about his family and to deliver help, albeit out of fear, reflects his natural giving personality, almost rendering him weak. After meeting this man, Pips world is turned upside down. Then again, he won’t be underestimated by


Interestingly, the turning upside down of Pip by the stranger becomes a symbolic moment in the boys life. It sets him up for the future events of the novel, as his personality has been molded and harassed. Later on in the novel, a lawyer by the name of Mr. Jaggers says “...that it is the desire of the present possessor of that property that he be immediately removed from his present sphere of life and from this place, and be brought up as a gentleman � in a word, as a young fellow of great expectations.” (1). In other words, an anonymous patron wants to bestow his huge property on Pip; as a result, Pip will be trained to become a gentleman. Upon hearing the shocking news, Pip adopts a snobbish attitude and thinks himself too good for his surroundings. Because of his snobbish attitude, “I caught one of them looking at me, though never so pleasantly (and they often looked at me � particularly Biddy), I felt offended; as of they were expressing some mistrust of me.”(15) Pip feels offended because he thinks he is higher than anyone else and that he should be treated with respect, and that the littlest harm to his “gentleman” status is a threat.


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As Pip learns how to be a gentleman, he is proud of his new clothes and his generous allowance and is full of grand thoughts about his life as a gentleman in the big city of London. Even though his sudden transition from a common man to a rich gentleman is huge, Pip, with his “changeable” personality is able to adapt, greedy for money. He also enjoys that the attitudes of people toward him begin to change once they learn of his grand inheritance. Even Mr. Pumblechook, who has always commented on Pip as a burden, waxes eloquent on his good fortune and prime position in life. When Pip meets one day with Estella, a beautiful and yet, bitter young lady, she says that “… what was fit company for you once would be quite unfit company for you now.”(1) She is saying that Pip cannot have company from the past with him again, explicitly Joe. Because of this warning, Pip thinks, “In my conscience, I doubt very much whether I had any lingering intention left of going to see Joe…” (1) As Pip’s wealth has brought him this far, he has completely forgot about Joe and Biddy, part of his past, and is dealing instead with his present, as a “gentleman”.


Seeing that he has broken many hearts through his benefits, Pip begins to obscurely understand that good friends are more valuable than wealth. Towards the end of the novel, while talking with Miss Havisham, he thinks of Herbert and secures Miss Havishams help in maintaining Herberts business in the firm. Pip explains he can no longer support his friend financially, since he will not accept Magwitchs, his secret benefactor, money. Through his stopping of using Magwitch’s money, we can see Pip redeeming his self after his snobby actions to his friends, especially Joe and Biddy. Pips worth as a human being seems clearer. He has followed through on Herberts career, making certain his good friend is well provided for. And he has been a loyal protector for his benefactor, despite his own feelings about the whole ordeal. Finally, at the end of the novel, Joe comes to care for Pip, because Pip has become sick. Pip feels very ashamed of himself, “Oh, Joe, you break my heart! Look angry at me, Joe. Strike me, Joe. Tell me of my ingratitude. Don’t be so good to me!” (41) Joe cares for Pip, and later Pip finds out that Joe is to be married to Biddy. Pips love for both his friends is clear from the fact that he shows no disappointment at Biddys marriage with Joe. In fact he regards them to be the best husband and wife and worthy of each other. Pip is completely a good man now, learning from the mistakes he has committed in the past, and hoping he can start freshly once again.


Character changes such as in Pip will always be pure Dickensian. Dickens has a magnificent talent to create a simple character and make it “sprout” and grow into a completely different one. Pip started as a commoner, then changed to a “gentleman” with false pride, and finally to a stable, positive man. Pip’s interior is clearly all Dickens was interested in. This is why, throughout the whole novel, we have not even a crumb of physical description of Pip.





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dutch genre

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The seventeenth century saw several changes in painting styles in Holland. One of the most significant was the emergence of the Dutch Genre, a style that depicted domestic scenes. This return to realism, some think, was brought about by the predominately Protestant culture. However, since Catholic Dutch artists such as Vermeer also contributed to this genre we must assume that the trend towards realism was more national than sectarian . Many painters rejected the fantastical and the supernatural choosing to paint the everyday instead. Both the “Woman Holding a Balance” by Johannes Vermeer and “A Mother lacing her bodice beside a cradle” by Pieter de Hooch construct a particular notion of femininity created by the use of women in domestic scenes.


Another major development in the painting world was the development of an art market. This can be contributed to the fact that the Dutch, being Protestant, did not have highly decorated churches and had little need for religious images. However, a large number of Dutch families were well off and were willing to purchase paintings to decorate their homes. This is the first time in history that artist were producing paintings not just on commission but for a general market. It is possible to assume that both Vermeer and De Hooch would have painted paintings for the purpose of selling them to the general public, not just for commission.


Because of the use of religious images in churches was no longer practiced, Dutch artists starting placing values normally found in religious images into their “natural” paintings. Because the paintings were based on reality and the values that they portrayed were well known to the viewer this new way of portraying religious images made them more assessable to the viewer. Dutch painters sometimes used symbolism to portray these values to the viewer. In some paintings, pictures on the walls in paintings would relate to the value. This is the case in Vermeer’s “woman holding a balance”. Other times the picture as a whole was represented the value like in “a woman lacing up her bodice beside a cradle” by De Hooch.


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“Woman holding a balance” by Johannes Vermeer, painted around 166-64 is a good example of a Dutch Genre painting. This painting shows a woman standing in front of a table, holding a balance. The white and blue of woman’s dress contrasts the black of the painting behind her. On the table are several boxes, from which jewelry and pearls spill out. It was once thought that the balances held either gold or pearls. This resulted in the painting being known as “a woman weighing gold” or “a woman weighting pearls”. However, upon closer examination it was proven that the balances were indeed empty. The paint used to paint the balances was different than the paint used to paint the gold, and the technique used to paint the pearls differed from the technique used on the balances. The woman does not look at the viewer; instead she looks down at her balance. The light coming from the window above her lights her face. Above the table there near the light source and facing the woman there hangs a mirror.


Vermeer uses light to divide the room diagonally into two triangles, one of light and one of dark. The viewer’s attention is focused on the center of the painting, that is, the woman’s hand that is holding the balance . Vermeer does this however, without distracting the viewer too much from the woman’s overall appreance . Behind the woman, facing the viewer, is a painting of the “Last Judgement”. The woman is aligned so that her head falls in the middle of the painting, over the traditional position of St. Michael . Christ is pictured with arms upheld, with the righteous on his left side and the sinners on his right.


Another interesting detail in this painting is Vermeer’s expressive use of light. Vermeer’s painting posses the quality of seeming to contain more light than the actual light sources in that painting allow for. Light was a significant metaphor in the art world as a symbol of divine light. Light was also meant to symbolize the disclosure of truth. Vermeer intended for every detail in this painting to be significant . This image is described as having a “timeless grandeur, balance and serenity despite the everyday theme .


Most interpretations of this painting focus on the act of weighing and judgement. The items before the woman are elements that belong in and are valued in the temporal world . These objects are in a sense, temptations toward material glory . The image of Christ reminds the viewer that though the woman’s judgments are temporal, Christ’s judgement is eternal. The upward gesture of Christ’s arms mirrors the opposing direction of the balance that the woman holds . It has been suggested that Vermeer is trying to convey a message that the viewer should try to lead a life of temperance and balanced judgement . The mirror on the wall reflects the woman’s search for self-knowledge . There has also been some speculation over whether the woman pictured is pregnant or if it is just the style of dress. If Vermeer had intended to woman to be with child the interpretation of the painting varies slightly. It has been suggested the intended meaning of the painting would once again focus on the balance but this time the focus would be on the fate of the woman’s unborn child. However, because it can not be proven that the woman is pregnant most often it is assumed that she is not. It was also once suggested that this painting was a Vanitas image that Vermeer wanted to viewer to reflect upon the material treasures that were to be weighed compared to the weighing of souls on Judgement Day . However, this idea has been increasingly rejected over the years, especially after the discovery of the empty balances . The new idea that has emerged is that this image has illusions to the virtues of honesty, justice, temperance and moderation .


The image intitled “A mother lacing her bodice beside a cradle” by Pieter de Hooch was painted around 1661-166. This is another classic example of Dutch Genre painting. De Hooch, unlike Vermeer, did not confine himself to painting only interior spaces but also painted courtyards. This painting shows a bedroom scene, a mother sits beside her baby’s cradle, lacing up her bodice. The viewer is lead to assume that she has just finished breastfeeding her child. There is a smile on the mother’s face as she gazes at the wicker cradle. A brass bed warmer hangs beside the bed and on the wall a red clock or skirt hangs on a peg. In the room there is an enclosed bed, covered by a striped curtain . This bed was the typical style found in Dutch houses around this time. De Hooch uses the practice of doorkijkje in this painting. That is, of opening the vista from one room to another, and there again from there to the street . In this painting, the viewer can see into the front hallway, where a young child stands silhouetted near an opened half-door leading out to the street. A dog stands by the mother’s feet. In the corner of the room a candle and jug stand on a cloth-covered table. Several pictures hang on the wall but De hooch does not show any of them in detail.


Both “Woman holding a balance” and “A mother lacing her bodice beside a cradle” were painted in Deft. However, these two paintings were painted in the same town around the same time have completely different styles. Vermeer is known for his use of light and use of symbolism. In the “Woman holding a balance” he makes use of both of these techniques. Although the painting seems simple enough, when examined closely it proves to carry several meanings. De Hooch’s painting seems to have more detail in it, but it doesn’t have the second meaning.


Holland in the seventeenth century was an independent nation, with control over her own politics and religion. In a time where politics and religion went hand in hand it in no small wonder that the Protestant church had such a large influence over the country. Seventeenth century Dutch culture was ‘governed’ by Protestant morality. Cleanliness was next to godliness and Dutch cities were known for their spotless houses and streets. This obsession with cleanliness may have been related to patriotism to one’s country. If one remained vigilant against germs and dirt, one was metaphorically also remaining villiagant against the unclean and heathen invaders on one’s homeland .


The management of the household was the woman’s job; this domestic role was proof of her power in society . It was also expected that the female with her weaker body was more suited to the home. Good Dutch women were also expected to be virtuous. The commonwealth, Dutch moralists seemed to insist, stood or fell by the virtue of their women . Jacob Cats encouraged aspiring brides to have the “spirit of Sarah, the virtue of Ruth and the humility of Abigail” . It is not surprising that many women failed to meet this ideal imposed by a male dominated society. This was not unlike any other European country of this time. However, with the importance placed on the family home by the Dutch Protestant church, this stereotype of the virtuous wife worked within Dutch culture with a particular intensity.


Most often in Dutch paintings of this era it is the mother, not the father, that is portrayed as the protectors of the household. Both Vermeer and De Hooch use women in their portrayals of domestic life. Vermeer is known for his extensive use of women models in his paintings. In the social context of the time it would have been more natural to view a woman, rather than a man, in a domestic setting. However, men were pictured in Genre paintings, most often in scenes of taverns or as soldiers. Vermeer often portrayed women looking away or down from the viewer. In the rare case that he painted a woman actually looking at the viewer she seems to look through, not at, the viewer . This reluctance of Vermeer’s models to look out at the viewer may stem from the artist’s wish to portray a virtuous woman, similar to ones found in 15-century portraits. In portraying a female both Vermeer and De Hooch are emphasizing the social values of the time. Not only are they reinforcing the importance of the household by portraying a clean and orderly home, they were also emphasizing the social norm of the time where the woman’s place was in the home.


Women in seventeenth century Holland were observed by Joseph Shaw to be more moral and happier than English women were. He attributed this to the fact that women were better provided for by the laws in their country; “so that they are not forced to trust their wits, nor put on those pitiful shifts to jilt mankind and bubble their husband for money ”. It is true that compared to other seventeenth century European countries women did enjoy a fair amount of freedom and legal right. Some widows were even allowed to inherit their late husband’s estate .


Vermeer and De Hooch’s styles of painting varied, as did their choice of subject matter. Vermeer is known for his use of light to emphasize a scene. He was also known for his use of symbolism to portray a subject.





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Saturday, July 14, 2012

It's Time for an Alternative Solution!

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Executive Summary





Today the manufacturing industry contributes greatly to the amount of pollution distributed throughout the environment. Although standards have been developed to limit the amount of pollutants produced and/or disposed of each year, the issue and its damaging effects still exist. However, new energy sources are being developed to eliminate many of these problems. These sources of energy are produced through the use of solar power, wind power, and hydropower. These methods of energy production are cost effective and operationally efficient, which provides various benefits to the user. The impact of such energy sources has little or no effect on the environment and provide for safer working environments. The fact of the matter is that no other energy source can compete with solar, wind, or water power.


It’s Time for an Alternative Solution!


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In today’s world pollution and all of its effects has become a very big issue. More often than not, the blame for such environmental hazards is placed on the shoulders of the manufacturing industry. However, many of these companies make products that the public uses on a regular basis. Why then isn’t the public doing more than just passing the blame off on manufacturers? The fact of the matter is that everyone is at fault, whether directly or indirectly, for the pollution that destroys our world. More importantly, everyone has a responsibility to control and/or eliminate such negative effects on our environment. By no means is this responsibility “easy”. It takes time, effort, and money to negate all of the horrible things we have done to the land, air, and water.


In an attempt to control some types of pollution the government has instituted environmental standards that limit the amount of emissions and waste being produced. Although most manufacturers meet these guidelines, each year more new businesses are started and more waste is produced. On the topic of environmental protection we’re going nowhere, and fast! It’s time for an alternative solution!


At Enviro-Source, Inc. we are dedicated to finding new and effective solutions to minimize and/or eliminate completely the impact manufacturing companies have on the environment. These solutions range from alternative energy sources, alternative methods for material usage and disposal, and alternative operating methods. Here alternative sources of energy will be discussed. These solutions are effective and will be proven to work for any manufacturing type companies, thus allowing them to improve processes that have direct and indirect effects on the environment


Manufacturing’s Impact


Regardless of whether or not the government’s environmental standards are met each year, manufacturing continues to have a huge impact on the environment. Air, water, and land are polluted, which causes serious damage to the world and its people.


Within manufacturing the greatest contributor to air pollution is the emissions that are put out into the air on a constant basis. These emissions are a combination of the production of certain products and the energy used to produce them. This impacts the environment by causing acid rain and global warming. “Acid rain causes acidification to lakes and streams” and damages trees and plant life, crops, buildings, and soil. (Effects of Air Pollution) Pollutants in the air can also result in illnesses, such as respiratory diseases, to animals and people. Global Warming is also caused by air pollution. As a result the ozone depletes allowing for warmer temperatures and increased precipitation and sea levels. Water and land pollution are also partly caused by manufacturing. The dumping and/or leakage of toxic waste into water and onto land poisons the water and food supply, causing illnesses in people. This form of pollution also erodes the soil and damages or destroys ecosystems, agricultural areas, forest, and wildlife. These are just a few of the damaging effects of the manufacturing industry on the environment.


After realizing what devastating effects we can have on the environment, it becomes evident that something must me done. Many companies want to improve environmental efficiencies, but are concerned with the costs and overall effectiveness of different environmental prevention plans. However, the following alternative options have been developed to be cost effective, efficient, and environmentally sustainable.


Alternative Energy Sources


Today most companies are still using electricity to produce their products. However, the use of electricity contributes greatly to air pollution by giving off greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and even mercury. (Cleaner and Greener) It also can be very expensive depending upon production and operations. Recently, however, alternative energy sources have been developed which are just as effective as using electricity, but are more cost efficient and have little or no effect on the environment. Three of these sources of energy are solar power, wind power, and hydropower. They of course have advantages and disadvantages, but the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages.


Solar power is the conversion of light into energy. How does it work? Well panels are constructed out of a heavy-duty glass with layers of plastic for maximum reflection and protection. Within the panels are Photovoltaic cells, or PV cells, which is what actually transforms light into energy. “When sunlight strikes a PV cell electrons are dislodged, creating an electrical current.” (What are Photovoltaics?) There are a variety of systems to choose from and many can be customized to meet specific needs. Manufacturers that implement a solar power system become virtually self sufficient when it comes to energy. There are two disadvantages to a solar powered system. The first is that the initial set up costs, depending on the type of system needed, might be expensive. This is outweighed by the benefit that over the long run this is the least expensive type of energy system to run. The second disadvantage is that although energy is still produced on cloudy or overcast days, the amount of energy is reduced. (Photovoltaic Cells and Modules) Therefore, this must be taken into account when installing such a system. Despite such disadvantages solar energy is becoming the most effective, cost efficient, and environmentally friendly systems in the world.


Another type of energy source that is becoming popular is wind power. “Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity to power homes, businesses, schools, and the like.” (US Dept. of Energy) The turbines come in many different sizes and only create some noise pollution, due to the propellers. This energy producing system is very cost effective. The only disadvantage is that the system is limited to producing only as much energy as there is wind. (US Dept. of Energy) However, technology regarding wind power is on the rise and is becoming very cost competitive.


The final type of alternative energy source that is getting a lot of attention is hydropower, or waterpower. This type of energy can be produced in several ways. One of which is to use a wheel that is turned by the force of the water, then that wheel powers a generator, which in turn creates energy and distributes it. Turbines, in place of the wheels, can also be used in dams or in lakes and streams. Although this type of energy produces no pollutants, methods using turbines kill fish and can cause injuries to people. (US Dept. of Energy Hydropower Program) However, research and new technology is being developed to prevent such accidents from happening. It is also very cost effective and is a self-sufficient means of providing energy. The only other disadvantage is that its use is limited to areas where sufficient water resources are available. Despite the disadvantages, using hydropower is still much more efficient than using electricity. Once the turbine technology is developed more, waterpower will no doubt become another environmentally safe means of producing energy.


Conclusion


It is painfully obvious that manufacturing activities can have huge impacts on our environment. The waste and emissions they produce causes air, water, and land pollution. This calls for drastic action. By using alternative energy sources to power plants and facilities the impact on the environment can be minimized and/or eliminated completely. Those sources being solar power, wind power, and hydropower. These methods of energy use also reduce costs associated with production and allow for more efficient operations. In today’s world meeting governmental standards is not enough. It’s time for an alternative solution! It’s time for the manufacturing industry to take the initiative and become environmentally friendly. Only in this way, is it possible to preserve the world around us for years to come.


“Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems”. U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Program. 10 July 00. http//hydropower.inel.gov/turbine/turbine.htm.


“Cleaner and Greener Program Pollution Calculator, The”. Leonardo Academy Inc.


10 July 00. http//www.cleanerandgreener.org


“Effects of Air Pollution”. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. July 00.


http//www.epa.gov/air/topics/corneap.htm/


“Quick Facts about Wind Energy”. U.S. Department of Energy . 10 July 00.


http//www.eere.energy.gov/wind/web.html


“What are Photovoltaics?” Solar Electric Power Association. July 00.


http//www.solarelectricpower.org/power/what_are_pvs.cfm


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Friday, July 13, 2012

Formal Education: Who Cast the First Role?

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Paulo Freire believed in his theory, known as “The “Banking” Concept of Education. His theory is written to show how students and teachers behave in a formal educational system. Freire feels students and teachers are cast into different roles that are followed throughout students’ education. The roles vary throughout the article; the teacher is cast as a narrator, a lender and owner of knowledge, all knowing and powerful, and an oppressor. Students are also placed in different roles; they are portrayed as passive, uncaring, uncurious, oppressed “containers” without the ability to think on their own and form their own opinions. Many people would blame society because students and teachers are cast into these roles, which may be seen as unfair. People can blame society as much as they would like; however, when push comes to shove anyone who isn’t working toward changing the system is a part of the problem of the system. People play an important part in casting teachers and students into the roles they follow. Students and teachers are also responsible for the roles they are cast into because they cast themselves into these roles at times, as well. An example of how such roles are issued and followed is portrayed very well in a class preparing the students for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) with a teacher who will be called Ms. Ery.


In this classroom setting, the students were learning the necessary mathematical skills to be successful on the SAT. While Ms. Ery had the ability to teach her students these skills well, she was the authority figure, and she had to stay that way at all costs. Freire would say that “…the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his or her own professional authority….” This was certainly true in this case. Only certain methods of solving the problems were allowed to be used by the students. They weren’t allowed to use the comfortable mathematical formulas they knew how to manipulate expertly. Instead, they had to use shortcuts whether they felt comfortable using them or not. One student decided to use the old comfortable methods anyway because she felt comfortable with it and was scolded for doing so. Ms. Ery made it her job to point out that it was not the way she taught it; therefore, it could not be used as a method in her classroom. This also shows that Freire was correct when he said “…the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined….” Although the student got the correct answer, it was believed by the teacher to be undermining her authority; therefore, she disciplined the student accordingly. Students and their parents have placed the teacher in this role of authority. Parents and students alike feel comfortable knowing the teacher knows all the answers and has all the knowledge. Questioning this knowledge or going against what the teacher has said alters the role of the authority figure given to the teacher by society; it takes away some of the control the teacher has over her students and makes the teacher feel less adequate due to a lower being questioning her authority. It can also make a teacher feel threatened; if the student gains too much knowledge, her job may be in jeopardy because a student knows just as much as she does and sometimes more than she does. This would make her less of an authority figure because the one she is educating would know more than she does on a certain subject. The teacher then imposes a role as an oppressor onto herself.


Ms. Ery is then viewed as an oppressor by her students because of this self-imposed role. Freire would say “Oppression - overwhelming control- is necrophilic; it is nourished by love of death, not life. The banking concept of education, which serves the interests of oppression, is also necrophilic….” Ms. Ery’s control over her students, the classroom, and the lessons taught show “overwhelming control” on Ms. Ery’s, as well as her authority figure’s, behalf. Although the students are all in the class for the same purpose, to learn the necessary skills to earn a higher score, they don’t all need help in the same areas. Ms. Ery’s authority figure has forced her to teach only certain lessons to the students at certain times. Even if a student is ready to move on, that student must be held back at the level of the other students surrounding him or her. “Any situation in which some individuals prevent others from engaging in the process of inquiry is one of violence…” which is exactly what is being done by not allowing a student to further his or her knowledge when said student is ready to do so. By oppressing her students, the teacher can be portrayed as a “violent” individual because she hasn’t allowed her students to flourish at each individual’s own pace. This, however, is not entirely the fault of the teacher. Although she imposed the role of the oppressor onto herself she is also one of the oppressed. Hanging above her head is the fact that these students must do well on the exam they are being forced to take. This means that society has bound her hands with this test and, if her students do not do well, she is not seen as a “good teacher,” which puts an extraordinary amount of pressure on her and this is what oppresses her.


Due to this way of teaching, students tend to be treated like “containers” because society says they are the students and this is how the students learn best. Freire says, “Narration (with the teacher as the narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” into “receptacles” to be filled by the teacher….” This happens quite frequently in Ms. Ery’s class. The students copy, word for word, equation by equation, as Ms. Ery writes them. The knowledge she is “filling” the students with is thought to be lent to the students and owned by the teacher. The students then memorize all of this “lent” information, and they are said to have been “filled” with knowledge by their teacher. Freire also stated, “Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiqu�s and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat….” This occurs quite frequently as well. Ms. Ery does not exchange dialogue with her students; she speaks and the students listen and memorize all she has said to them that day. They do not question Ms. Ery, which means they do not have any “true knowledge,” nor does society expect them to have “true knowledge.” Freire said, “The students are not called up to know, but to memorize the contents narrated by the teacher. Nor do the students practice any act of cognition, since the object towards which that act should be directed is the property of the teacher….” The teacher owns the knowledge the students are being “filled” with and they are expected, by teachers and society, to feel lucky to be able to “borrow” this knowledge from the teacher because children in other countries are not lucky enough to have an education.


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This attitude by teachers and parents oppresses the students who then accept a self-imposed passive role that does not teach them how to think on their own. Freire believes,


It is not surprising that the banking concept of education regards men as adaptable, manageable beings. The more students work at storing the deposits entrusted to them, the less they develop the critical consciousness which would result from their intervention in the world as transformers of that world. The more completely they accept the passive role imposed on them, the more they tend simply to adapt to the world as it is and to the fragmented view of reality deposited in them.


Students just adapt to the world surrounding them. Ms. Ery said the students could not do math problems a certain way, and they didn’t do it that way. They adapted to her way of teaching and accepted it for what it was education. Because students have learned to adapt so frequently to fit all the needs of their teachers, such as Ms. Ery’s students, there is no room for the students to think for themselves nor have any real knowledge of their own. They will never know why they are getting certain answers in Ms. Ery’s class, they will just accept that they are getting the correct answers and be satisfied with that. That is not true knowledge; “Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other….” as Freire had said. These students, without asking Ms. Ery why they came up with certain numbers as their answers, would never have true knowledge, just memorization skills and nothing more. “Hence in the name of the “preservation of culture and knowledge” we have a system which achieves neither true knowledge nor true culture….”


Freire feels this educational system needs to be changed as do I. I agree with Freire that students need an educational system in which “…the teacher-of-the-students and the students-of-the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges teacher-student with students-teachers. The teacher is no longer merely the one-who-teaches, but one who is himself taught in dialogue with the students, who in turn while being taught also teach….” Teachers need to be open to new ideas; they need to be ready to learn from their students and to allow their students to have their own opinions and experiences. I do, however, know that some students and classes call for a system like the banking concept. Certain classes have certain rules, like English must follow certain rules of grammar, which can only be taught by a lecture. Science classes, however, can be more of a hands on experience, which not only teaches the students, but allows the students to teach the teacher. Some students also need the banking concept because being lectured is the only way they are able to learn or they need to be pressed harder than others to get work done. Others do not need it because they learn best by talking, debating, and being open to all different ideas. I believe that the teacher and the students must use dialogue and learn from one another during the educational process. I know society tends to press an education strictly following the confines of the banking concept, but it can be up to the teacher if a class is taught that way. Not everything has to be a lecture and not everything has to be done one way, like with Ms. Ery’s math problems. If she was open to new ideas, she would have seen that the student did the work correctly and, if that is how the student felt comfortable doing it, she should not have had a problem with that. Authority needs to remain, but it also needs to be evenly disbursed to all because everyone is a teacher and everyone is a student.


The banking concept of education alone is not responsible for casting teachers and students into unfair roles. Some of this is done by the teacher him or herself; some of these roles are caused by society or higher authority figures, as was the case for Ms. Ery. Society also imposes various roles on the student, but the student self-imposes these roles, also. Despite the roles students and teachers are cast in by society and themselves, there is always a way to change the system. Maybe Freire was right when he talked of needing a “revolution” to change the ways of education. When students and teachers give up the traditional roles shown in the banking concept of education, maybe everyone will learn more than he or she thought possible. Maybe when everyone reflects back on a lifetime of education, after a change, all the “teachers” that the “student” had will be cherished for teaching him or her a lesson no one else had ever been able to teach in the past.





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Comparison/Contrast essay

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When most people think of a hero, they often visualize a sports figure. While this fulfills the idea that a hero is a person who embodies the most important attributes of a culture, often people fail to take into account the price young athletes pay for this temporal fame. John Updike and A. E. Housman explore the ideas of fame, failure, and fate in their poetry; their two poems “Ex Basketball Player” and “To An Athlete Dying Young” share a common theme; however, they diverge when considering their tone.


The theme of both poems centers around the idea that athletic fame is important but fleeting and short-lived. In “Ex Basketball Player” the narrator says that Flick “bucketed three hundred ninety points/A county record still.” These lines establish Flick as a local hero who has brought fame to his town. The unnamed athlete in “To An Athlete Dying Young” is said to have “won [his] town the race” and the townspeople “chaired [him] through the marketplace.” Like Flick, he was a local hero who brought renown to his village. The moments of fame are intense for the heroes and make them immortal in the lore of their respective towns.


This fame, however, does not last as an athlete grows older or dies. In “Ex Basketball Player” Flick either never succeeds in a career in sports or never pursues it after high school; content instead to work at a gas station. “He never learned a trade, he just sells gas.” Flick’s life peaked in high school; he cannot aspire to anything greater. His fame has faded, and he is now reduced to being an athletic has-been. The athlete in Housman’s poem does not live to realize his potential as a runner�dying before his name is forgotten, “eyes the shady night has shut/Cannot see the record cut.” Both heroes fail to become the superstars their early careers promised.


Updike and Housman use different tones in expressing the feeling of the two poems. The speaker in Updike’s poem is objective and detached as he describes Flick’s fate. “Flick seldom says a word to Mae, just nods/Beyond her face toward bright applauding tiers/Of Necco Wafers, Nibs, and Juju Beads.” No judgment is given about Flick’s life. The speaker’s description of Flick’s diminished life lets the reader know that even though Flick is no longer a star; he is a survivor who has adjusted to his limited fame. On the other hand, Housman’s tone in “To An Athlete Dying Young” is pessimistic and bitter about the unfairness of life. “Smart lad, to slip betimes away/From fields where glory does not stay.” Here, the speaker infers that all athletic effort is in vain and that any record set by an athlete is destined to be surpassed sooner or later.


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Both “Ex Basketball Player” and “To An Athlete Dying Young” contain the bittersweet theme that athletic honors fade. Yet the tone of each poem adjusts to the circumstances which caused the honors to fade lack of determination for Flick and death for the runner. Both poems celebrate and mourn the intervention of fate in the life of each of these unfortunate players.





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Character Analysis of Mrs. Mallard in "The Story of an Hour"

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The way that a character portrays him or herself in a short story, contributes greatly to the sucess of that piece of literature. In The Story of an Hour, written by Kate Chopin, there are only a few characters but the main one is Mrs. Mallard, a soft-spoken lady with heart trouble. In this story she seems to be the victim of an overbearing but sometimes loving husband. Even though Mrs. Mallard is unhappy in her marriage, she is still too afraid to say anything to her husband. Many people say that Mrs. Mallard is a cold-hearted woman who rejoices at her husbands death, yet others say that her husband is the one to blam for her reaction. I, on the other hand, agree with both sides because they both contributed to Mrs. Mallards actions. Everyone has their own opinion, but who can say which one is right.


I belive that there are thousands of women all over the world who live in a place where their every move is made by their spouse. In The Story of an Hour, Mrs. Mallard lives and breathes every word that her husband speaks. Even though she did what her husband told her to do that didnt make her a weak person. Holding all of her emotions back just to satisfy Mr. Mallard made her a stronger character. She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength, this is how the text described her, which supports my opinion of her overwhelming strength.


Mrs. Mallard appeared to be very unhappy with her marriage. She was so unhappy that she rejoiced at the news of her husbands death. In a way she felt trapped by her husbands ability to make choices for her. She said it over and over under her breath free, free, free! These were the words of Mrs. Mallard after pondering the idea of her husbands tragedy. She had never been able to do things for herself or live life to the fullest and she made that clear when she said that There would be no one to live for her during those coming years; she would live for herself. Mrs. Mallard was glad that she would finally be able to live life for herself instead of her husband, so she was in a sense free. Even though Mr. Mallard made her unhappy at times, she was still too afraid to say anything to him. She might not have even realized her unhappiness until the opportunity arose for her to consider her options. She cared more for her husbands happiness and that showed a great deal of sacrifice.


Theres a lot of controversy about Mrs. Mallards character in this story. Some people say that she is a shameful excuse of a wife who didnt care about her husband. They thought that she was a cold-hearted woman who rejoiced over her husbands death without even knowing for sure that he was dead. There are also people who thought that she was a sacrificial wife who was trapped in a marriage by an overbearing husband who didnt even love her. I personally agreed with some parts of both opinions. I dont think that Mrs. Mallard should have kept completely silent about her feelings towards her husband, but Mr. Mallard was too pushy. Overall, Mrs. Mallards ability to bite her tongue was a main reason as to why she was so unhappy. If she had been honest from the beginning of their marriage then she might not have ended up in her husbands so-called tragedy of death.


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There are many different ways to analyse the charateristics of Mrs. Mallard in The Story of an Hour. Some might say that she was a polite young woman who minded her husband, while others would say that she was a cruel person that didnt have any feelings. Either way, Mrs. Mallards character will be a topic that no one will be able to agree on!


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Catch me if you can

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Catch me if you can


‘Catch me if you can’ is a true story of a real fake. It has been told in a movie as well as in a novel. The novel was written by Frank W. Abagnale with the assistance of Stan Redding. The novel was published by Broadway books in 00. ‘Catch me if you can’ is an autobiography of Frank Abagnale and is set throughout America and Europe during the early 170’s.


Catch me if you can is about one of the most cunning impostors, conmen, forgers, and escape artists in history. From the beginning to the end Frank’s criminal adventures are descriptively and enlighteningly told through this thrilling autobiography. Frank was a runaway teenager from home. His intelligence and his need for survival collided when he realised he could become a conman and getaway with it. The novel begins as a struggle for survival but then becomes a miraculous chase between a dozen governments and Frank W. Abagnale. During his brief but infamous career he was a co-pilot for Pan American airlines, practiced law without a licence, cunningly became a sociology lecturer and fraudulently obtained a supervising role at a hospital. Throughout his career as a criminal he discovers his personal identity. ‘Catch me if you can’ describes the transformation of an innocent teenager to a young, intellectual criminal mastermind. Frank Williams, Robert Monjo, Frank Adams and Robert Conrad were all an alias of Frank Abagnale.


The story begins in Frank’s teenage years when his father, mother and Frank were all living together. One day Frank arrived home to be informed that his parents were getting a divorce. This scared Frank, and resulted in him leaving home and surviving lacking a job and without support from his parents. He became a conman and a cunning and gifted one at that. His goal was to forge cheques in order to support himself. To enable him to forge checks he needed to look respectable so he co-piloted in Pan Am and flew around America in a pilot’s uniform exchanging his false checks around at hundreds of naive banks. After a year the federal government were on to him and were then chasing him around the country. From city to city, country to country he was never a safe man again. This resulted in Frank moving from place to place to avoid the police. In the many pleasant places he lived he met people and these people offered him many different positions. He became a hospital supervisor, a lawyer without a license and a sociology professor by forging certificates and documents he was given these positions.


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Frank later made a choice to retire from his criminal career and live in France under the alias of Robert Monjo but was later caught by the French police and sentenced to imprisonment. He was then required to serve time in a dozen other countries. Frank was finally extradited back to the U.S after coming to an agreement with a Swedish judge. Frank served time in the U.S but later came to an agreement with the government to work with the FBI in fraud cases and identifying false checks. In my opinion the moral message is that pursuing a career like his you would always be on the run and would never be safe. You would eventually be caught and would always be required to change your identity to avoid the police.


Frank constantly was required to change his personal identity through means of forging documents, having numerous aliases, changing his occupation and residence. Frank experienced an identity crisis when he questioned what he was doing and wanted to cease his career but was (at the time) forced to change his identity to avoid dozens of federal governments.


The divorce of Frank’s parents resulted in Frank questioning his identity in terms of why things happened and what was going to happen to him. Franks dad played a role in assisting and supporting Frank in everything he did even whilst a criminal. Age determined his identity because he was youthful, inexperienced and miserable at the stage when he ran away from home. In chapter six Frank mentions that he was so deeply immersed in assumed identities that he forgot he was Frank W. Abagnale. Frank was so confident and smooth that he escaped from prison and fooled so many people even Sean O’riley who was with the FBI and who was solely dedicated to catching Frank. Frank was so self assured he was a cocky and happy conman that could persuade anyone. His principle of sustaining his role as a con artist was the presentation, exuding an air of confidence and authority, charm, courtesy, being seemingly sincere and affecting the cool arrogance of a tycoon.


An important challenge for Frank was to play a game of cat and mouse with thousands of cats always right behind him. The most significant challenge was the inhumane, outrageous, disgusting and immoral six months he served in a French dungeon. The prison challenged his identity, because it was a battle to maintain sanity. Frank hallucinated about roles to maintain his sanity. For example he would pretend he was operating on the president or having a wild date with a beautiful young woman. His challenge in the French prison was simply survival physically and mentally.


Frank applies real life encounters, imagery and relevant information to develop his ideas about identity. In my opinion imagery is the most effective style of developing a thorough understanding of the novel.


Frank uses imagery to portray his challenge in the French prison. When an American consulate asked Frank how he was coping Frank replied “How am I doing?” “I’ll tell you how I’m doing, I’m sick, I’m sore, I’m naked, I’m hungry, I’m covered with lice. I don’t have a bed, I don’t have a toilet, I don’t have a wash basin. I’m sleeping in my own shit. I have no light, no razor, no toothbrush, no nothing. I don’t know what month it is. I don’t even know what year it is, for Christ’s sake….I’m being treated like a mad dog. I’ll probably go mad if I stay here much longer. I’m dying in here. That’s how I’m doing!” This is a total contrast to when he was travelling the world, stealing millions of dollars and having affairs with gorgeous young women. His many cars, his $000 pinstripe suit, his luxurious apartments in several cities are all pleasant imageries of his success as a con artist.


Frank relates his point of view to the novel frequently. He looks back on what he did and comments plenty of times. He shares his views with the reader on what he believes about things and the way activities should be performed.


‘Catch me if you can’ was a highly enjoyable novel. Not only because it was so exciting but because it was true. I disliked the way Frank went into detail about how to forge a check. I found it quite boring when he explained how he forged the checks because it isn’t really something that I want to know about or am interested in. I recommend this novel to anyone over the age of fifteen because it is aimed at adults due to the complicated language used. By reading this novel I have learnt that his personality changed to suit every theme. For example when he was a pilot he would have to act confident and smooth. He was constantly changing his personal identity to suit each theme. I give the novel 4 ½ out of 5.








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adventures of huckle berry finn

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The adventures of huckle berry Finn is a very good boook. The main caracter is of course Huck Finn. The book Starts of with Huckleberry finn in the town of st. petersburg. Huck is adopted by the widow douglas because his father Pap is never around and always abuses him. Huck shows that he finds religion very stupid and that he doesnt understand why anybody would pray at all. Miss watson has a black slave named jim who is a very kind hearted black man. You first see jim in the novel when huck tries too sneak out of the Widow douglass house to meet with Tom. Jim eventually falls asleep and tom puts his hat on the branch above his head. When Jim wakes up, he looks around and finds his hat on the tree branch and establishes that he was cursed by a witch. Tom and Huck go to their gang meeting place where the rest of the members are already formed up. Tom gives he gang oath and says he got most of the information from pirates books. They then decied if huck can join the gang, because he doesnt have any family members they can kill if he rats out on the gang. Huck gives up miss Watson and the gang agrees to kill he if Huck tells any of the gangs secrets. They then discuss that there main job is to steal and kill, but only kill the men. They must treat the women with the best manners.Also, tom wants to hold some of the women for ransom because he heard thats what they do in pirates books.


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Thursday, July 12, 2012

A Raisin in the sun

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A Raisin in the Sun


In the fifties, many young couples sought to fulfill the American Dream. While many families were able to save money easily and successfully fulfill their dreams, others were not so fortunate. The play “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry chronicles the story of an African American family as they seek their dreams and the trials they face in doing so. Lena, Walter, Ruth, and Beneatha Younger all live under the same roof, but their dreams are all different. Different family beliefs and goals among the group do not always benefit and are sometimes a source of dissension amongst the members because the larger group goals are sometime lost because of the incessant race for individual goals.


As the play begins, Walter and his wife Ruth are seen having a fight over Walter’s dream to become a ‘mover and shaker’ in the business world by using an insurance check as a down payment on a business venture. Walter tells his wife that, “I’m trying to talk to you ‘bout myself and all you can say is eat them eggs and go to work” (Hansberry ). This is the first sign of Walter’s recurring feelings that if someone in the family would just listen to him and put forth their trust his dreams would come to fruition. Following this argument Walter goes off to his job as a chauffeur for his employer, Mr. Arnold, which is the job he so longs to be done away with because he would rather “be Mr. Arnold than be his chauffeur. ( ) This episode illustrates a major conflict throughout the story. As Walter dreams expand, he seems to leave the smaller things such as family behind. This movement away from family is against the furtherance of the values and morals of the family. While his father would have been happy simply working and caring for his family, Walter is more concerned with becoming a ‘mover and shaker’ without thinking about the resulting consequences for his family.


Later in the morning, Beneatha, the younger sister of Walter, initiates a conflict by speaking in an unacceptable manner about God. She is seemingly rejecting values that have been taught to her since childhood. This event shows yet another time in which a family member threatens to ruin the inherent stability of the family structure by trying to build in a manner which is completely incompatible with the rest of the structure. Beneatha, although believing to be bettering herself is leaving an important part of herself and her heritage behind. Beneatha’s speech about God is her attempt to show her independence in the world, but when she asserts herself in an area that is extremely sensitive to the family heritage, she threatens to wean herself from the only guaranteed support group in life. However, Beneatha realizes later in the story that it is the furtherance of long-standing family values and morals, which give the foundation upon which to build a wonderful life.


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In contrast, the story’s ending presents a view of how standing by long term family goals, values and beliefs provides a sense of unity that can surmount any obstacle and keep the pride of the family alive. Once the insurance money is received my Mama, Lena Younger, she believes that the best thing to do with it is buy a new house for her family and help to pay for the cost of Beneatha’s schooling. At first she is very adamant against giving any of the insurance money to Walter because she believes that his uses for the money will not benefit the family. But, as time progresses Lena shows how downtrodden her son is because none of the family members will back his dream, so she gives him the money left over after buying the house to spend on his dream. However, Walter’s deal falls through and he is faced with a pride deflating task of talking with the head of the white





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A Farewell to Arms

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Analysis of Major Characters


Frederic Henry - In the sections of the novel in which he describes his experience in the war, Henry portrays himself as a man of duty. He attaches to this understanding of himself no sense of honor, nor does he expect any praise for his service. Even after he has been severely wounded, he discourages Rinaldi from pursuing medals of distinction for him. Time and again, through conversations with men like the priest, Ettore Moretti, and Gino, Henry distances himself from such abstract notions as faith, honor, and patriotism. Concepts such as these mean nothing to him beside such concrete facts of war as the names of the cities in which he has fought and the numbers of decimated streets.


Against this bleak backdrop, Henrys reaction to Catherine Barkley is rather astonishing. The reader understands why Henry responds to the game that Catherine proposes�why he pledges his love to a woman he barely knows like Rinaldi, he hopes for a nights simple pleasures. But an active sex drive does not explain why Henry returns to Catherine�why he continues to swear his love even after Catherine insists that he stop playing. In his fondness for Catherine, Henry reveals a vulnerability usually hidden by his stoicism and masculinity. The quality of the language that Henry uses to describe Catherines hair and her presence in bed testifies to the genuine depth of his feelings for her. Furthermore, because he allows Henry to narrate the book, Hemingway is able to suffuse the entire novel with the power and pathos of an elegy A Farewell to Arms, which Henry narrates after Catherines death, confirms his love and his loss.


Catherine Barkley - Much has been written regarding Hemingways portrayal of female characters. With the advent of feminist criticism, readers have become more vocal about their dissatisfaction with Hemingways depictions of women, which, according to critics such as Leslie A. Fiedler, tend to fall into one of two categories overly dominant shrews, like Lady Brett in The Sun Also Rises, and overly submissive confections, like Catherine Barkley in A Farewell to Arms. Hemingway, Fiedler maintains, was at his best dealing with men without women; when he started to involve female characters in his writing, he reverted to uncomplicated stereotypes. A Farewell to Arms certainly supports such a reading it is easy to see how Catherines blissful submission to domesticity, especially at the novels end, might rankle contemporary readers for whom lines such as Im having a child and that makes me contented not to do anything suggest a bygone era in which a womans work centered around maintaining a home and filling it with children.


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Still, even though Catherines excessive desire to live a lovely life may, at times, make her more archetypal than real, it is unfair to deny her the nuances of her character. Although Catherine alludes to her initial days with Henry as a period when she was slightly crazy, she seems perfectly aware of the fact that she and Henry are, at first, playing an elaborate game of seduction. Rather than being swept off her feet by Henrys declarations of love, she capably draws the line, telling him when she has had enough for the night or reminding him that their budding love is a lie. In fact, Catherines resistance holds out much longer than Henrys even after Henry emphatically states that he loves her and that their lives together will be splendid, Catherine exhibits the occasional doubt, telling him that she is sure that dreadful things await them and claiming that she fears having a baby because she has never loved anyone. Privy only to what Catherine says, not to what she thinks, the reader is left to explain these infrequent lapses in her otherwise uncompromised devotion. Her premonition of dreadful things, for instance, may simply be a general alarm about the war-torn world or residual guilt for loving a man other than the fianc� whom she is mourning as the book opens. While the degree to which Catherine is conflicted remains open to debate, her loyalty to Henry does not. She is a loving, dedicated woman whose desire and capacity for a redemptive, otherworldly love makes her the inevitable victim of tragedy.


Rinaldi - Rinaldis character serves an important function in A Farewell to Arms. He dominates an array of minor male characters who embody the kind of virile, competent, and good-natured masculinity that, for better or worse, so much of Hemingways fiction celebrates. Rinaldi is an unbelievable womanizer, professing to be in love with Catherine at the beginning of the novel but claiming soon thereafter to be relieved that he is not, like Henry, saddled with the complicated emotional baggage that the love of a woman entails. Considering Rinaldis frequent visits to the local whorehouses, Henry later muses that his friend has most likely succumbed to syphilis. While this registers as an unpleasant end, it is presented with an air of detached likelihood rather than fervent moralizing. It is, in other words, not punishment for a mans bad behavior but rather the consequence of a man behaving as a man�living large, living boldly, and being true to himself.


Themes


Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.


The Grim Reality of War - As the title of the novel makes clear, A Farewell to Arms concerns itself primarily with war, namely the process by which Frederic Henry removes himself from it and leaves it behind. The few characters in the novel who actually support the effort�Ettore Moretti and Gino�come across as a dull braggart and a na├»ve youth, respectively. The majority of the characters remain ambivalent about the war, resentful of the terrible destruction it causes, doubtful of the glory it supposedly brings.


The novel offers masterful descriptions of the conflicts senseless brutality and violent chaos the scene of the Italian armys retreat remains one of the most profound evocations of war in American literature. As the neat columns of men begin to crumble, so too do the soldiers nerves, minds, and capacity for rational thought and moral judgment. Henrys shooting of the engineer for refusing to help free the car from the mud shocks the reader for two reasons first, the violent outburst seems at odds with Henrys coolly detached character; second, the incident occurs in a setting that robs it of its moral import�the complicity of Henrys fellow soldiers legitimizes the killing. The murder of the engineer seems justifiable because it is an inevitable by-product of the spiraling violence and disorder of the war.


Nevertheless, the novel cannot be said to condemn the war; A Farewell to Arms is hardly the work of a pacifist. Instead, just as the innocent engineers death is an inevitability of war, so is war the inevitable outcome of a cruel, senseless world. Hemingway suggests that war is nothing more than the dark, murderous extension of a world that refuses to acknowledge, protect, or preserve true love.


The Relationship between Love and Pain - Against the backdrop of war, Hemingway offers a deep, mournful meditation on the nature of love. No sooner does Catherine announce to Henry that she is in mourning for her dead fianc� than she begins a game meant to seduce Henry. Her reasons for doing so are clear she wants to distance herself from the pain of her loss. Likewise, Henry intends to get as far away from talk of the war as possible. In each other, Henry and Catherine find temporary solace from the things that plague them. The couples feelings for each other quickly pass from an amusement that distracts them to the very fuel that sustains them. Henrys understanding of how meaningful his love for Catherine is outweighs any consideration for the emptiness of abstract ideals such as honor, enabling him to flee the war and seek her out. Reunited, they plan an idyllic life together that promises to act as a salve for the damage that the war has inflicted. Far away from the decimated Italian countryside, each intends to be the others refuge. If they are to achieve physical, emotional, and psychological healing, they have found the perfect place in the safe remove of the Swiss mountains. The tragedy of the novel rests in the fact that their love, even when genuine, can never be more than temporary in this world.


Motifs


Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the texts major themes.


Masculinity - Readers of Hemingways fiction will quickly notice a consistent thread in the portrayal and celebration of a certain kind of man domineering, supremely competent, and swaggeringly virile. A Farewell to Arms holds up several of its minor male characters as examples of fine manhood. Rinaldi is a faithful friend and an oversexed womanizer; Dr. Valentini exhibits a virility to rival Rinaldis as well as a bold competence that makes him the best surgeon. Similarly, during the scene in which Henry fires his pistol at the fleeing engineering sergeants, Bonello takes charge of the situation by brutally shooting the fallen engineer in the head. The respect with which Hemingway sketches these men, even at their lowest points, is highlighted by the humor, if not contempt, with which he depicts their opposites. The success of each of these men depends, in part, on the failure of another Rinaldi secures his sexual prowess by attacking the priests lack of lust; Dr. Valentinis reputation as a surgeon is thrown into relief by the three mousy, overly cautious, and physically unimpressive doctors who precede him; and Bonellos ruthlessness is prompted by the disloyal behavior of the soldier whom he kills.


Games and Divertissement - Henry and Catherine begin flirting with each other in order to forget personal troubles. Flirting, which Henry compares to bridge, allows Henry to drop the war and diverts Catherines thoughts from the death of her fianc�. Likewise, the horse races that Catherine and Henry attend enable them to block out thinking of Henrys return to the front and of their imminent separation. Ironically, Henry and Catherines relationship becomes the source of suffering from which Henry needs diversion. Henry cannot stand to be away from Catherine, and while playing pool with Count Greffi takes his mind off of her, the best divertissement turns out to be the war itself. When Catherine instructs him not to think about her when they are apart, Henry replies, Thats how I worked it at the front. But there was something to do then. The transformations of the war from fatal threat into divertissement and love from distraction into pain signal not only Henrys attachment to Catherine but also the transitory nature of happiness. Pathos radiates from this fleeting happiness because, even though happiness is temporary, the pursuit of it remains necessary. Perhaps an understanding of the limits of happiness explains the counts comment that though he values love most in life, he is not wise for doing so. The count is wiser than he claims, however. He hedges against the transitory nature of love by finding pleasure and amusement in games, birthday parties, and the taking of a little stimulant. That one can depend on their simple pleasures lends games and divertissement a certain dignity; while they may not match up to the nobility of pursuits such as love, they prove quietly constant.


Loyalty versus Abandonment - The notions of loyalty and abandonment apply equally well to love and war. The novel, however, suggests that loyalty is more a requirement of love and friendship than of the grand political causes and abstract philosophies of battling nations. While Henry takes seriously his duty as a lieutenant, he does not subscribe to the ideals that one typically imagines fuel soldiers in combat. Unlike Ettore Moretti or Gino, the promise of honor and the duties of patriotism mean little to Henry. Although he shoots an uncooperative engineering sergeant for failing to comply with his orders, Henrys violence should be read as an inevitable outcome of a destructive war rather than as a conscious decision to enforce a code of moral conduct. Indeed, Henry eventually follows in the engineering sergeants footsteps by abandoning the army and his responsibilities. While he does, at times, feel guilt over this course of action, he takes comfort in the knowledge that he is most loyal where loyalty counts most in his relationship with Catherine. That these conflicting allegiances cannot be reconciled does not suggest, however, that loyalty and abandonment lie at opposite ends of a moral spectrum. Rather, they reflect the priorities of a specific individuals life.


Illusions and Fantasies - Upon meeting, Catherine and Henry rely upon a grand illusion of love and seduction for comfort. Catherine seeks solace for the death of her fianc�, while Henry will do anything to distance himself from the war. At first, their declarations of love are transparent Catherine reminds Henry several times that their courtship is a game, sending him away when she has played her fill. After Henry is wounded, however, his desire for Catherine and the comfort and support that she offers becomes more than a distraction from the worlds unpleasantness; his love begins to sustain him and blossoms into something undeniably real. Catherines feelings for Henry follow a similar course.


While the couple acts in ways that confirm the genuine nature of their passion, however, they never escape the temptation of dreaming of a better world. In other words, the boundary between reality and illusion proves difficult to identify. After Henry and Catherine have spent months of isolation in Switzerland, Hemingway depicts their relationship as a mixture of reality and illusion. Boredom has begun to set in, and the couple effects small daily changes to reinvigorate their lives and their passion Catherine gets a new haircut, while Henry grows a beard. Still, or perhaps because of, the comparative dullness of real life (not to mention the ongoing war), the couple turns to fantasies of a more perfect existence. They dream of life on a Swiss mountain, where they will make their own clothes and need nothing but each other, suggesting that fantasizing is an essential part of coping with the banal, sometimes damaging effects of reality.


Symbols


Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.


Rain - Rain serves in the novel as a potent symbol of the inevitable disintegration of happiness in life. Catherine infuses the weather with meaning as she and Henry lie in bed listening to the storm outside. As the rain falls on the roof, Catherine admits that the rain scares her and says that it has a tendency to ruin things for lovers. Of course, no meteorological phenomenon has such power; symbolically, however, Catherines fear proves to be prophetic, for doom does eventually come to the lovers. After Catherines death, Henry leaves the hospital and walks home in the rain. Here, the falling rain validates Catherines anxiety and confirms one of the novels main contentions great love, like anything else in the world�good or bad, innocent or deserving�cannot last.


Catherines Hair - Although it is not a recurring symbol, Catherines hair is an important one. In the early, easy days of their relationship, as Henry and Catherine lie in bed, Catherine takes down her hair and lets it cascade around Henrys head. The tumble of hair reminds Henry of being enclosed inside a tent or behind a waterfall. This lovely description stands as a symbol of the couples isolation from the world. With a war raging around them, they manage to secure a blissful seclusion, believing themselves protected by something as delicate as hair. Later, however, when they are truly isolated from the ravages of war and living in peaceful Switzerland, they learn the harsh lesson that love, in the face of lifes cruel reality, is as fragile and ephemeral as hair.





Please note that this sample paper on A Farewell to Arms is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on A Farewell to Arms, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on A Farewell to Arms will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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