Monday, October 22, 2012

Each Mans Son

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The novel Each Mans Son by Hugh McLennan is a great demonstration of Calvinism. By definition, Calvinism is the doctrine emphasizing the depravity and helplessness of man. In Each Mans Son, Calvinism, also known as Puritanism is a rejection of beauty and pleasure, a condemnation of mans sexual nature, and a compulsion to work- this is the essence of Puritanism as MacLennan sees it. The Puritan, failing in these self-imposed standards, is plagued with guilt, shame, and fear. This description is best expressed in the novel best in the characters of Dan, Margaret, the Miners, Mrs. MacCuish and Mollie.





Dan Ainslie is the character that most strongly represents Calvinism. There are aspects of his character that depict this. The first of these is the way he deprives himself of his sexual desires for his wife. He is constantly frustrated with how he cannot express himself to her. This causes and emptiness with in the relationship that he feels guilty for. His desires are best described in chapter 7.


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He wanted to go off and lose himself. He wanted to find there a woman with Margarets body… who would hold his head and tell him that for all his worthlessness she loved him. (Pg. 65)


The second is that he has a compulsion to work. Almost every where in the novel he is working. Whether it is a surgery, putting in a few more hours or learning Greek hes always working.


Why a brilliant doctor who worked as he did should feel impelled to become a master of Greek she had never been able to understand… (Pg. 5)


Finaly, He feels guilty for almost everything. If he doesnt work hard enough, if he says something to benefit himself, does not help someone, or for no reason at all.


But why must he, Daniel Ainslie, forever feel guilty before he could reason away and reason for guilt?


(Pg. 64)


What was wrong with desire except that within himself it was overpowering and he feared it?


(Pg. 64)


Another strong argument for Dan is how he tries to forget of his Calvinistic background because it has driven him to misery. With all of the emotions bottled up in side of him, it on his father. When Alan asks him about ghosts, he says There are no such things as ghosts… but we all see them sometimes. (Pg.18) The ghost that Dan is speaking of is his Calvinistic habits.


Dans wife Margaret definitely feels the effects of Calvinism in her life. She is usually hurt by it and it makes her question her worth. She mostly feels poorly due to Calvinism because of the treatment she receives from Dan. She does not know if he truly loves her because he never tells her that he does. He doesnt spend time with her, and there is no passion in the relationship.


She hated that volume as a woman hates her husbands mistress. She feared it because it stood for something in his nature she never could touch. (Pg. 5)


This is how MacLennan describes the way Margaret feels about the Greek dictionary that Dan has because it receives more attention than she does.


The Miners are a brutal group of people. They go to work before the sunrises and come home after it sets. When they get home they are all dirty and tired. The young ones go out and drink every night and after that, they pick fights with rival coal miners. The impact of Calvinism on their lives is that come Sunday, they will be in their finest suits at church, hoping to find justification or forgiveness of fighting, getting drunk, impurities at the mouth (foul language) and their other committed sins.


But everyone went to church in Broughton, even those who were brawling the night before. (Pg.80)


The feeling of guilt forces them to shrug their way there, black eyes, hangovers, sailor tongues and all. This also demonstrates that even the lower classes are affected by this religion.


Mrs. MacCuish is the personified symbol for the tradition, loyalty to religion, and discipline. The most visible characteristic she poses is her attitude. She is a miserable old lady who has been aged by the sorrows of her religion. She demonstrates this by the maltreatment she gives Alan when she has to over see him for the morning during chapter 18. She first of all criticizes his mom for being a bad parent and then gets Alan some food to eat and demands him to put some molasses on it.


Alan did as he was told, but when he tasted this brown syrup he could hardly bear to swallow it, for it was not like the creamy molasses his mother gave him. It was full of crusty lump and the moldy bread was dank and sour. (Pg. 15)


As this quote states, the food given was not of specific qualifications. When he demonstrated manner and etiquette by not licking his fingers, she took great offence.


Hass nobody told you it iss a sin to waste fud?


Earlier, they had said grace to bless the food and being the adult, Mrs. MacCuish decided a say-after-me grace was appropriate. The second line into the grace was a demonstration of her hypocrisy. She believes that her state of spiritual purity is much better than of an innocent child.


Most merciful God… I am a miserable sinner and I know that I whill be damned. (Pg.15)


Mollie MacNeil is the wife of the one time boxer Archie MacNeil. After 4 years of not having a husband around, she is quite lonely. Although she is married, Louis Camire is in love with her and she actually has feelings for him. This does not mean that she is guilt free.


She knew he wanted to be her lover and she knew he was even more lonely than she was her self. On an evening like this she tried not to think about the feeling he gave her.


(Pg. 1)


This tells of how she avoided her emotions toward him to keep herself loyal to her husband. She also fully dedicates her self to the raising of her child which makes her feel bad for going out with Camire in the night time.


If God looked down on them that summer, the kind of God their ministers had told them about, He must have been well pleased, for by summers end all of them except Alan were conscious of their sins. Longing to do their best, they had discovered there is no best in this world. Yearning for love, they had found loneliness. Eager to help one another, they had made each other wretched. Dreaming of better lives, they had become totally discontented with the lives they led. (Pg. 00)


Success in a religious following depends on a persons self judgement and content with their actions. But what if to be content, was to not be content at all. Is this what is desirable… is this success? Perceptions opinion is the only way that can be judged, according to the doctrine founded by John Calvin, there is nothing that spells success better than these miseries.





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Disadvantages Of Owing a Car

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Is there any disadvantages of having a car? Having a car for a couple of years made me realize some disadvantages. For example,risking your life, spending money and the waste of time.


The first disadvantage is risking our life.We know the way we drive so we have to be carefull with the others drivers. when we are driving we always have to see if the person next to us is driving right. Because we never know if that driver is going to hit our car and cause and accident or maybe death. We never know what could happend while we are driving. For example you could be driving whit your kids in the car but there is an old lady driving next to you. you never know if she coukd suffer from an hearth attack and loose control of the car. Last thing you remember you were driving with your kids and know one is dead and you and your other child in a coma. So driving a car could be very dangerous for your life and others.


The second disadvantage is the money we spend. The good cars cost around 10,000 dollars and more. It all depends in what kind of car you like or want to drive. After getting the car we must paid the insurance for the car every year or six months. After that the car next gasoline to be able to run. Gasoline every day is becoming more expensive. Finally there is the parking. Every time we go shoping in some places we must paid for the parking of the car. If we dont park appropiate we get a ticket which is also very expensive. In other words, the responsibility of the car, and taking care of it could be very expensive.


Finally, owing a car is a could be wasting our time. First, we must take time and look for the perfect car we want and like to buy. Then we spend a whole day in Motor Vehicule getting all the paper work done. So, we could drive the car legally whit no problem. We also lose the time to sleep. For example, when we get up early to go to work or school. We must get there one hour and half early just to get a parking. And finally when there is traffic. Sometimes we cant move for hours. In conclusion, these are some reasons i belived owing a car is a waste of time.


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In others words, owing a car carhas many disadvantages. Eventhoug sometimes it could be very necessary. I would recomend when posible to use public transportation is safer and more econmic.


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Different humans, different behavior.

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The theory of Evolution says that at the very beginning of life were plankton. Those plankton evolved and became more and more complex organisms. Depending on their environment and choices, the organisms that were created were different in their (physical) appearance and behavior. Now, the Earth has a very diversified fauna and flora living in their respective biosphere. All the living species are classified according to their physical traits and behavior. However, one specie present differences among their group the Human Being. In fact, Humans are easily recognizable at least physically, but since they have something more that makes them more complex to study- the ability to think- they present difficulties to be assimilated as a homogeneous group. Since each human being has a unique character, do not expect them to behave the same way in front of a same situation. Therefore, a deep study into the causes that may influence their choice must be much more interesting and helpful in order to understand that behavioral difference. Then, the right question one must ask is What makes people behave differently? To find answers to this dilemma, in this essay will be analyzed successively three important reasons or factors that may lead people to behave in a way or another the influence of the environment, of the people around and of the experience.


First, the most common source of learning for an individual is his immediate and natural environment. By that is meant his culture, his religion or civilization. It is well known that people of the same culture share many things in common such as lifestyle and general behavior. You are more likely to find people doing similar things in a same area or culture. The way people behave in Africa will not be the same as for the ones in Asia, not that there is only one culture characteristic to those places. When the first colonists came to Africa, they were astonished by the way people were behaving. They deduced that those people were primitives. They thought those people who were behaving differently did not know any better. These people tended to impose their own value system on others, knowing that they were right and these other people were confused. They believed the way they behaved was natural and normal and the way other people behave, if it was different, was wrong and misguided. What they did not get was that those people were living according to their own systems and culture. Many people died, trying to preserve what they believed in, under the righteousness of those colonists. Also, the example of the businessmen is evocative. Before going in a new country, they study the culture of that country. What for, one might be wondering? Well, since the cultures are different from one place to another, you do not want to screw the business up by saying or doing stuffs that might be interpreted as offenses by the other party. To know the “Do?and ?Don’t? it might be wise and smart to study the culture you are going to meet. Today, the best way culture is spread is through the media. We can say that children are TV-educated. That is their culture. But uncontrolled media can lead to great catastrophes. Who does not remember terrible events like the most famous “media-bashing?cases; Marilyn Manson and the video game Quake having motivated the Columbine shooters; an Eminem wanna-be who beat the crap out of his wife; TV wrestling inspiring kids to break each other’s bones; a school shooting inspired by a Pearl Jam song; many past cartoons, movies and musical artists that pushed the edge of the envelope. Remember the violence of “Looney Tunes?cartoons, and the scary Wizard of Oz, or the Beatles song Run For Your Life,?which features a line that states “I’d rather see you dead little girl/than to see you with another man.?Those examples well illustrate the influence of culture on one’s behavior.


Next, another great influence on people’s behavior is people themselves. Generally it is what is known as Peer Pressure. You might have been taking Philosophy at school and, then, being introduced to subjects as various as the Human being’s Behavior. As far as I am concerned, I have. I used to hear my instructor saying “To be autonomous means to act in accord with one’s self�it means feeling free and volitional in one’s actions. When autonomous, people are fully willing to do what they are doing, and they embrace the activity with a sense of interest and commitment. Their actions emanate from their true sense of self, so they are being authentic. In contrast, to be controlled means to act because one is being pressured. When controlled, people act without a sense of personal endorsement. Their behavior is not an expression of the self, for the self has been subjugated to the controls. In this condition, people can reasonably be described as alienated.?Then, I asked myself ?do human beings behave differently when they know they’re being watched??My suspicion has always been a self-assured “not necessarily.?By going through life, I started to see clear. A good example of people influence on one is the text “Shooting an Elephant?In this text, George Orwell, while serving with the imperial police in Burma was called one day to deal with an elephant that went crazy. He shot the elephant because that was what the Burmese that called for his help were expecting him to do. So, those people, not his free will, influenced his behavior. To me, this text well illustrates the weakness of human beings. In fact, we are all doing things that we are expected to do. Sometime, our actions are ducted, influenced by the mass. This man, George Orwell, may be seen here as a puppet directed by the mass. Also, his fear to be seen as a coward leads him to act this way. He knew he was an occidental man and he acted the way he thought another occidental man would be acting. Here, we can only agree on how people, by their expectations, influence one’s choices.


Last, but not least of the three, the experience plays a non-negligible role in one’s behavior. It is well known that older people have more experience than the youth ness. Old people, through decades have experienced a lot of situations in life. The way you see them facing situations may seem foolish, they face it, usually, with a technical approach. It is not with surprise that we see them dealing with success. Young people are known for their inexperience. Usually, due to their inexperience, they fail or take more time solving a problem. However, that does not mean that old age only have the absolute exclusivity of the experience. In Africa, there is a truth saying “The wisdom does not wait for the number of year.?That means you can be young and be wiser than someone older than you are. Trevor gives a good example in the movie Pay it Forward. He might be only 1 years old and no one was expecting something special from him other than stuffs a young boy of his age does. But by thinking and applying his movement, he behaves an unexpected way. No one was expected him to come up with such an idea. He made then the difference. Also more interesting about generation and behavior is that their behavior changes while their ages grow. Usually older people are seen as crazy because they do not act “rationally.?What people do not understand is that their behavior is influenced by their age. In the text “Pigeon Women,?May Swenson describes old age; it’s perception by others, its difficulties, and an old woman’s need for love and care. This is primarily a poem that describes through the use of imagery and illustrates to us readers the effects of old age in the perception of other people, and the ole person as well. Aside from the important theme of old age and trying to defy it, Swenson also tells us of the difficulties that an old- aged woman experiences, how her everyday life seemed to be almost always a routine, how, for a woman of old age, life has been gentle or hard for her. Through the use of strong imagery, symbolism, contrasts, metaphors, alliterations, and internal rhymes, the author of this paper will discuss the themes of old age and coping and living with old age, and the Pigeon Womans need for love and care in May Swensons poem, Pigeon Woman.


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To conclude, in this essay have analyzed three important factors that influence people’s choices and behavior the environment, through the civilization or culture; people, through the Peer Pressure; and then, the experience and the age. There might be many more factors but those three constitute the most common ones. Today, more than ever, we all need to accept to live in the difference. Try to imagine a world where everybody looks and thinks alike? That makes non-sense and looks scary. Also, that is what makes us human we all live to make the difference, but to make that difference, we must accept the difference between us.


Work cited


Pay it Forward


Directed by Mimi Leder


Starring Kevin Spacey, Helen Hunt, Haley Joel Osment, Jay Mohr, Jim Caviezel, Jon Bon Jovi & Angie Dickenson


Pigeon Woman. May Swenson


Run For Your Life,?the Beatles


“Shooting an Elephant?George Orwell


Wizard of Oz


Starring Judy Garland, Ray Bolger


Director Victor Fleming


Release Date August 1


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Comparison of 'My Last Duchess' with 'Porphyria's Lover', by Robert Browning.

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Both these poems were written in the mid-1800s, by Robert Browning, and are examples of his earlier works. He was one of the pioneers of the dramatic monologue form, which is used in both the poems. Browning described the dramatic monologue form as Action in character, rather than character in action. He means that the personality and thoughts of the character are revealed in the poem, and it is not centered on their actions. The form allows the poet to hide behind a fictitious first person speaker. In these poems, the persona reveals aspects of his life through suggested and hidden narrative, rather than directly spoken.


Porphyrias lover is the monologue of a man, in love with a woman named Porphyria. The man knows he cannot keep Porphyria for ever, and so takes drastic steps in order for Porphyria to always be his. My Last Duchess is a monologue by a 16th century Italian Renaissance Duke, showing the emissary of a count around his court, and subtly conveying the emissary a warning about his previous duchess.


The two speakers that Browning uses, the Duke, and Porphyrias lover, are distinctly different. Browning accentuates this difference with the settings of the poems. The lover lives in a seemingly small cottage, with a cheerless grate. The setting is not described extensively, apart from the weather. Browning describes the weather outside the cottage first


The rain set in early tonight,


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The sullen wind was soon awake,


It tore the elm-tops down for spite,


And did its worst to vex the lake.


He uses pathetic fallacy to indicate to us the lovers mood. The use of human, angry adjectives such as sullen and a verb to vex means that the lover is in a tempestuous mood, even before Porphyria arrives.


The duke obviously lives in grand finery. He invites the emissary to look at My last Duchess painted on the wall. The Duke in My Last Duchess was modelled on Alfonzo II, the fifth duke of Ferrara in Renaissance Italy. He would certainly have been a patron of the arts, as was the custom for the upper classes of society at the time. He points out a work of art to the Counts emissary at the finish of the poem


Notice Neptune, tho,


Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity.


He is obviously proud of his works of art, just as he expected to be proud of his wife. We are also reminded, as Neptune was taming a sea-horse, that the duke managed to tame his wife, only in death. The Duke was also constantly suspicious of his wife, as is shown by the line;


Sir, twas not


Her husbands presence only, called that spot


Of joy into the Duchess cheek.


The Duke unreasonably suspects his wife of having been flirtatious even with the painter, so bad were her flirting tendencies. As the painter, Fra Pandolf, is a friar, this is very unlikely. The line serves to reinforce the idea that the Dukes obsession is not completely based on real incidents, rather mostly in his mind.


The relationships the characters themselves had with their fictional lovers were completely different. Although Porphyrias lover does kill her, there is still a tenderness and emotion in his monologue that is not apparent in My Last Duchess. The lover seems capable of more emotion than the duke. It was the lover who sat in the cold cottage in a storm, and listened with heart fit to break for Porphyrias return. The Duke, however, only has the faded memory of his anger and jealousy towards the Duchess. The poem does not serve as a picture of the Dukes emotions, just to show us the warning to the emissary, the silent listener of the poem


These differences of outlook also show themselves in the way that the Duke and the lover murder their respective women. The Duke kills his duchess out of hatred and jealousy. He tells the emissary


I gave commands


And then all smiles stopped together.


This method of murder, simply giving commands to another man is extremely impersonal compared to that of Porphyria. Porphyrias lover killed her with emotion, and debatably, he killed her out of love. He simply found a thing to do


All her hair.


In one yellow string I wound


Three times her little throat around


And strangled her.


It is done almost tenderly, and it seems, without any form of guilt or remorse. The line lengths are between five and seven syllables, making the verse seem light-hearted. At the end of the verse, the lover tells us


All night long we have not stirred,


And yet God has not said a word.


It is as if the lover feels that God has condoned his actions, so made them acceptable to the speaker.


The relationship that the lover and the duke had with their women was also very different. The Duke is very explicit over what he feels the Duchess did wrong, that she


…Ranked


My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name


With anybodys gift.


My Last Duchess is in fact a study of obsession. The Duke is obsessed with the idea that the Duchess was being overly familiar with other men, because She had a heart… too soon made glad.


Porphyrias Lover, however, is very different. The relationship between Porphyria and the un-named man seems to be illicit, held back by family or social ties of Porphyria that are hinted at but never actually discussed. The lover is upset and angry because he wants Porphyria, and these ties are holding her from him


She


Too weak, for all her hearts endeavour


To set its struggling passion free.


From pride, and vainer ties dissever.


And give herself to me forever..


The lover knows that Porphyria will not giver herself to me forever, but at that moment she was mine, mine, fair, and he felt he had to have some way of capturing it. While the Duke killed the Duchess out of jealousy and pride, the lover killed Porphyria through misguided love, and a need to have her close.


Porphyria and the Duchess, however, are more similar than the males. They both seem like beautiful, charming people. The sensual description of Porphyria making her smooth white shoulder bare gives the reader the impression that she is beautiful. The Duchess is described as being overly familiar with men from the court by her jealous Duke, but in fact she seems like a charming person


All and each


Would draw from her alike the approving speech.;


The Duchess especially seems innocent, as the Duke tells the emissary that The white mule/She rode with round the terrace. A white mule is symbolic, as white represents purity, and a mule is sterile, and so represents chastity. This subtext reinforces the idea that the murder of the Duchess was not necessary. On a similar note, when Porphyria enters into the lovers cottage, she removes her soiled gloves. This indicates that Porphyria, unlike the duchess, lacks purity. It also highlights the fact that this may be an illicit relationship. There is not much more revealed about the women in the poetry than what has already been mentioned. This is because the main focus of the poems is the actions and mentality of the men, and so it is easier for the women to be simple but charming creatures.


Due to the form of these poems, we do not learn anything about the views and attitude of Robert Browning, the poet. He has, however, used literary devices such as pathetic fallacy to help convey the hidden subtexts of the poems to the readers. The differences of language are also used to highlight the differences in character of the two speakers.





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checks!

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I woke up in a very strange place, one I don’t recognize. I was in a long white gown, and I had no shoes on. The room I was in was very plain, and had only a bed. It looked like a hospital, and I had no idea why I would be there, so I figured it was a dream. I went back to my bed and went back to sleep. The next thing I heard was


“Checks,” the lady called, “Time to wake up Corena”.


“Checks?” I replied. “What are checks and why am I in this place?”


“Don’t be silly,” the lady told me. “You came in her last night, you don’t remember?”


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“No....” I responded.


I took a moment right then to think about why I was here. All I could remember was being at a party and having a great time. But then I remember my boyfriend Josh coming, and we had a fight. I thought I had just gone home after?


I looked down at my body and searched for any bruises any anything that might bring to a conclusion for why I am here. There was a bandage around my wrist. I didn’t try to kill myself did I? This can’t be happening! I couldn’t remember how I did this, I must have been really drunk.


“Corena, its time to get up!” The lady said quite firmly. “Its time to come out for breakfast and take your meds.”


Meds? Does that mean medications? I am not a crazy person!


I got up from my bed, and slowly walked over to the door, still confused about the whole ordeal. The lady introduced herself to me,


“Hi, my name is Joanne, and I will be your nurse for today, and the majority of your stay here at Sick Kids,” she told me.


“All right,” I answered. “But wait, my stay? How long will I be here for?”


“That all depends on you Corena,” Joanne said. “But usually kids stay here for around a month.”


A MONTH! I cannot stay here for a month! What will my friends think? What will Josh think? This cant be happening to me.


“Corena...Corena...Corena!” Joanne yelled.


“Yes, sorry Miss....I um....I was just day dreaming I guess,” I answered. I was really out of it, they must have given me some medications when I came in. I feel really dazed, and unaware of things.


I was at the breakfast table, sitting with about 7 other girls, and other boys. I looked around at everyone, and noticed that this wasn’t a very happy place. The girl sitting beside me was breaking apart her food into very small pieces and eating them very slowly. She also was trying to hide some of it in here clothing. I guessed that she was Anorexic right away. I thought it was very sad to see this. The boy on the other side of me was not eating anything, instead he was rearranging the food on his tray into very specific piles, which was quite odd to me. I noticed a lot of strange things that people were doing in here, and it made me feel somewhat uncomfortable. So I stood up, and started to walk away, back to my room.


“Corena!” One of the nurses called. “You must sit here until we are all done. If your not hungry, than here are your meds, you can go get a glass of water.”


“Um, that’s okay, I don’t need any meds, I just feel like sleeping right now,” I replied.


“I’m sorry Corena, but you must take these meds, they are doctors orders,” she explained. “And going back to bed is not an option dear.”


I guess I really had nothing to say after that, so I just sat back down. Joanne came over to where I was sitting, and gave me a little cup with different capsules in it. I stared at the cup for awhile, and finally took the medication out of the cup into my hand.


“Don’t take it!” Yelled one of the patients. “Its gonna kill you!”


“What?” I replied with hesitation.


“Corena, these meds are simply to relax you and make you feel better.” She replied. “Adam has a fear of pills, that’s all”.


I took all of the pills, and Joanne asked me to look into my mouth after. I guess they have to monitor everyone to see if they actually swallow them.


After breakfast we all went to the recreation area, where there was a TV, a Play Station, a computer, and lots of arts and crafts. At the back of the room, there were 5 very large windows that viewed the whole interior of the hospital. I went over and looked down at all the commotion.


That’s when it hit me that I was actually admitted in a hospital. I have to get out of here, this is not where I belong! At that point at left the recreation area, and went back to my room, which was not allowed at this time, but I had to leave this skitso ward. I got to my room, and before you knew it, Joanne was in my room too.


“Don’t you get any privacy around here! Geeez, I left for minutes and you are already chasing me. I am not a screw up, its a mistake that I am even here! I’m leaving right now, and you cannot stop me Joanne.” I yelled, with about the most rage I have ever used.


“I know your upset Corena, but this is a safe place. And this is where your going to be for the next month or two. You and your parents signed you in here last night, so you are under our care now. I’m sorry dear. Now come with me, you have Group Therapy now.


“Group Therapy?” I replied. “You MUST be joking me right?


And if things couldn’t get any worse, she was not joking. I had to sit in a room with all the kids, and have a Group Therapy class. I didn’t speak the whole time. Instead I just sat there listening to the Therapist ask questions to everyone. Then she got to me. It was my first session, and she already knew all about me it seemed. How does everyone all of a sudden think they now your life story when I have been in here for under 1 hours. This is insane.


“Corena, you don’t have to feel uncomfortable here, this is a safe haven. Nobody will judge you.” The Therapist told me.


“Well, I just don’t think its anyone’s business to why I am here. And nobody should be forced to talk if they don’t want to.”





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Auden

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In “Musee des Beaux Arts” W. H. Auden describes the ordinary human indifference to suffering. His poem is an example of ekphrasis, poetry describing artwork. In this poem Auden utilizes an ironic duality in his expression and comprehension of human anguish. His poem is full of remarks that seem casual and accidental, and yet still accurate, definite and precise. He ponders the mystical qualities of “the miraculous birth” and “dreadful martyrdom” in the midst of normal, everyday scenes (7, 10). With an impressive balance of Apollonian and Dionysian elements Auden is able to express his thoughts on the lofty subjects of art and suffering, while maintaining a controlled, if subtle, poetic format. All of these dualities in Auden’s poetry express his perception of indifference to the human condition, and ask the reader to question his or her own tendencies of apathy towards others. “Musee des Beaux Arts” shows how both the Old Masters and Auden perceived that it is human nature to remove oneself from the suffering of others.


The dramatic situation which Auden sets the poem in serves to illustrate his thoughts on the connections between art and suffering. The poem is incredibly visual as it follows the speaker’s walk through a corridor in an art museum. This speaker passes by paintings of scenes such as “the miraculous birth” (6) of Christ and the scene of “children…skating / on a pond at the edge of the wood” (7-8) waiting for Christ’s martyrdom. Auden deliberately removes the personal and individual qualities from these paintings, describing the suffering as it takes “place / While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully / along” (-5). This hasty summarization of how one perceives suffering suggests the speaker’s brief glances as a museum goer, and his reactions as he “walks dully along” to look at other paintings (4-5). A minimal amount of attention is given to each highly crafted and detailed painting. In this sense the speaker’s lack of concern translates into Auden’s concern that individuality and uniqueness is threatened. In the World War II landscape that this poem was written in Auden is obviously worried about the minimalization and dehumanization of real human anguish. By describing the two magnificent pieces of art in less than nine lines Auden shows how one’s quick glimpses and fleeting thoughts about each painting hardly do justice to the art and the message that the art is trying to give. The speaker in the poem gives no more attention to the suffering depicted in each scene than the children “skating on a pond” give to the torturer (7-8).


The apathetic condition of humanity is further emphasized in the poem as the speaker stops in front of Pieter Brueghel’s painting, “Landscape with the Fall of Icarus” which he simply calls “Icarus” (14). This truncation of the title is ironic because the poem deals with issues of indifference and Brueghel’s original title emphasizes the landscape and how Icarus’ suffering was not of the greatest importance in it. By changing the title to simply Icarus, Auden re-emphasizes Icarus in the painting, somewhat against the artist’s original intentions. Although this may be partially due to issues of meter, the shortened title shifts the emphasis from the landscape to the pair of legs sinking in the ocean. Brueghel’s title helped emphasize “how well they understood / It’s human position,” namely, the importance of the landscape over the position of suffering (-). It seems that the dramatic situation here attempts to show how art, especially visual images, can aestheticize suffering, and Auden, by forcing Icarus to be the focus of the painting again emphasizes that it is he who deserves the attention, but normally does not get it. Brueghel’s painting captures the myth of Icarus and all of his suffering, and condenses it into a single “snapshot” scene. Similarly, Auden’s poem attempts to condense the paintings and all of their implications into a single, short poem. Auden, like Brueghel, presents to the observer a reflection of what they might be unconsciously doing to human suffering, namely, ignoring it.


Auden in his own poem attempts to understand and express the “human position” of suffering as the great masters did (). He is acutely aware that pain usually happens unnoticed, in the margins of everyday activities. Auden makes this reduction of importance evident, for instance, when he manages to condense a hugely important myth, the fall of Icarus, into less than one line � “a boy falling out of the sky,” (0). Auden’s short descriptions of the scene seem like a casual commentary, the “white legs disappearing into the green / Water” (18-1). Auden’s detached and unpretentious language makes the poem act in a similar manner to Breughel’s painting. The poem, like the paintings magnifies the event of suffering, paradoxically, through ironic understatement. The poem serves then as its own message as an example of the threat to humanity.


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Auden masterfully uses language in the poem, choosing words heavily charged with social ideas to emphasize his meaning. His diction seems simultaneously conversational and meticulous. He uses the word “anyhow” to describe where the “dreadful martyrdom” must occur. “Even the dreadful martyrdom must run its course / Anyhow in a corner” (10-11). Without the word “anyhow” the line would flow without interruption. However, the word interjection “anyhow” throws off the stream of speech, and focuses the awareness on the incredible juxtaposition of torture and nonchalance. The exact location of where the torture happens is unimportant, “some untidy spot,” (11) it only reiterates how well the “Old Masters” understood the issue (). Another important word is “amazing” in the lines “must have seen / Something amazing” (1-0). Those on the ship saw, and did not stop for “a boy falling out of the sky” (0). The word “amazing” here further demonstrates the incredibility of indifference to suffering. Also, the word “amazing” draws in a reference to the myth of Icarus, as he was trapped with his father in a labyrinth when they designed the wax wings to escape. That the ship in Breughel’s painting does not stop to notice even “something amazing” proves that that Old Master truly understands the “human position” on suffering ().


Auden’s semi-religious upbringing also shows through in the heavily Biblical diction of the poem. The “dreadful martyrdom” goes on unnoticed by the children or animals (10). The dogs, horse and children who are nearby are described as “innocent” (1). Here, the adjective “innocent” makes a reference to Biblical passages about the innocence of children, like animals. It is important to note that the term “innocent” does not necessarily forgive the children for their indifference, it only partially explains it. The word “forsaken” is also highly charged with Biblical themes (16). Not only does the word “forsaken” work because it condenses the main theme of the poem, but also because it echoes Christ’s last words, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Matthew 746). In Auden’s poem it is the plowman who “may / Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry” (15-16) and it is this common, hard-working person who could have done something, reacted to the pain, but instead chose to continue his own self-serving labor. Auden’s choice of words such as “martyrdom,” “innocent,” and “forsaken” all draw a parallel between the suffering that Jesus went through, the suffering that Icarus dies from and the suffering of the “others” as observed by Auden and his contemporaries.


The poem also has a sense of development that guides both the speaker and the reader towards a better appreciation of the victim of suffering. There is a physical sense of movement as the speaker literally walks down the corridor of the museum as there is also a poetic unfolding of the situation and argument. As the poem develops it moves from a plurality to singularity of sufferers. Auden leaves “the aged” without any description and the “children” as nameless and faceless ice skaters (5,7). From there it moves on to the singular “torturer” whose horse “scratches its innocent behind on a tree” while again, whoever the torturer is abusing remains unknown (1-1). However, in the final part of the poem we are given far more specific details. The name of the final sufferer is given, Icarus, and he is described, “white legs disappearing into the green / Water” (18-1). This focus on detail at the end of the poem draws the reader closer to the situation and is perhaps Auden’s way of forcing the reader to acknowledge the suffering, at least temporarily.


There is also a shift in the diction as Auden uses more artistic, visual words. Icarus is depicted in “green” water, with “white” legs. The passing ship is “delicate” and “expensive” (1). These details help emphasize the composition of the painting and draw attention back to the actual artwork being referred to. The poem climaxes briefly in line 0 when the ship sees “a boy falling out of the sky” but then appropriately drops back to the anticlimactic and uncaring line “had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on” (1). This let down is fitting to the theme of the poem, drawing attention to the intense suffering that is briefly observed then immediately forgotten and moved away from. By ending with this downcast line Auden’s poem reflects the indifference he writes about.


“Musee des Beaux Arts” comes across initially as a poem praising the understanding and craftsmanship of the painters. However, as the poem moves onward the focus shifts from the actual art to the message contained in the paintings. Auden claims that the Old Masters understood suffering because they portray it as ignored, unimportant to others, casual, commonplace. This insight is what Auden finds remarkable in the paintings. He asserts that those artists “were never wrong” and never will be (1). The paintings which depict scenes that took place so long ago are still accurate in their portrayal of human indifference. Auden admires this perception of human nature, and, in tribute to their acuity he too crafts a piece of art which is detailed, precise and beautiful, and hopefully alerts the careful observer to consider his or her own position towards suffering. The speaker of the poem, the museum patron, mirrors the role of the innocent children who numbly go through the course of their day, or the plowman who chooses to ignore the pain which is occurring so near to him. In the same way that this speaker can be seen as those in the paintings he can also be amplified to represent people, especially those persons that Auden observed around him, in general. The poem, through it’s mock concern of details, accurate commentary on the nature of people and beautiful artistry shows that Auden too was one of the “Old Masters” concerned about, and able to accurately portray suffering as it truly occurs in the human tradition.





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A Solitary Blue

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In the book A Solitary Blue the author showed great difference and similarity among Jeff and The Professor. The similarity is demonstrated in the novel in many different ways. Jeff and The Professor are both unemotional because Jeff is afraid his father might leave him too, and The Professor is too busy in his work. Melody leaves Jeffs life when he is 7 years-old. She only leaves a note for them to read. The Professor hires people to cook for them and take care of the house. During the summer, Melody returns to Jeffs life. He spends the summer with her and at first he doesnt want to open up because hes afraid she might hurt him again. But her love and kindness makes Jeff trust her again. But the next summer she is not there for him. It leaves Jeff stranded and depressed. He can only find peace when he spends the night on the beach. He makes a tower room inside his head, it is the only place he can get awa from life. In the book A Solitary Blue the author showed great difference and similarity among Jeff and The Professor. The similarity is demonstrated in the novel in many different ways. Jeff and The Professor are both unemotional because Jeff is afraid his father might leave him too, and The Professor is too busy in his work. Melody leaves Jeffs life when he is 7 years-old. She only leaves a note for them to read. The Professor hires people to cook for them and take care of the house. During the summer, Melody returns to Jeffs life. He spends the summer with her and at first he doesnt want to open up because hes afraid she might hurt him again. But her love and kindness makes Jeff trust her again. But the next summer she is not there for him. It leaves Jeff stranded and depressed. He can only find peace when he spends the night on the beach. He makes a tower room inside his head, it is the only place he can get awa from life. In the book A Solitary Blue the author showed great difference and similarity among Jeff and The Professor. The similarity is demonstrated in the novel in many different ways. Jeff and The Professor are both unemotional because Jeff is afraid his father might leave him too, and The Professor is too busy in his work. Melody leaves Jeffs life when he is 7 years-old. She only leaves a note for them to read. The Professor hires people to cook for them and take care of the house. During the summer, Melody returns to Jeffs life. He spends the summer with her and at first he doesnt want to open up because hes afraid she might hurt him again. But her love and kindness makes Jeff trust her again. But the next summer she is not there for him. It leaves Jeff stranded and depressed. He can only find peace when he spends the night on the beach. He makes a tower room inside his head, it is the only place he can get awa from life.


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"Tainted Perception"

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Tainted Perception


In a world where crime happens every minute, people are killed daily, and adultery runs rampant, it is hard


for society to gain an optimistic view of their world. In


literary pieces such as Othello, The Scarlet Letter, and “Hands,” and Taming of the Shrew, this pessimistic view placed in society is easy to see. Because society is often solely focused on only the evil of the world, they are more apt to overlook the inherent good of its people.


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In Shakespeares Othello, overlooking the natural


virtues of people and focusing only on the perceived misdeed, can lead to tragedy. As part of evil Iagos sinister plan, Iago leads Othello to believe that his lovely wife, Desdemona, is cheating on him with his lieutenant, Cassio. Overlooking Desdemonas inherent kindness and honesty, Othellos jealousy grows more


and more. Othello states to Desdemona, “Heaven truly knows


that thou are false as hell” (IV ii ). This rising jealousy leads Othello to crime, killing his own wife, saying “Get me some poison, Iago; this night Ill not expostulate with her, lest her body and beauty unprovide my mind again this night, Iago” (IV i 188-10). After killing Desdemona, her mistress, Emilia, convinces Othello of Desdemonas honesty. Guilt-stricken, Othello takes his own life saying, “I kissd thee ere I killd thee no way but this; Killing myself, to die upon a kiss” (V ii 58-61). Othello is a great example of how ignoring the natural goodness can ultimately lead to ones downfall.


In The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, dishonesty in marriage also plays an important part through which the main character, Hester Prynne, is severely criticized by her society. Although formerly thought of as “youthful and fair” (Ch. ), Hester becomes impregnated by a man she is not married to. Her husband had been missing for a number of years, but yet the adulterous


relationship was scorned. Although the man involved, Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, never came forth to admit his sin, Hester is shunned by society for her sin. She is forced to stand on the scaffold for three hours, and is forced to wear an embroidered scarlet letter “A” on her chest to represent “Adultery.” She is ostracized by her


once accepting community, and even her daughter is left in a life of isolation. Because of the societys failure to note the repentant and virtuous life Hester lived, both Hester and her child were traumatically influenced by the judgments of their community.


In “Hands” by Sherwood Anderson, a persons rare


affectionate behavior is looked scornfully upon as gestures of ulterior motives. Wing Biddlebaum has trouble controlling his nervous hands. His hands “restless activity, like unto the beating of the wings of an imprisoned bird, had given him his name.” As an effective teacher, through the “stroke of the shoulders and the touching of he hair” Adolph “Wing” Myers was enabled to share his dreams with his students, who therefore went to dream themselves. When these affectionate teaching tools were taken into consideration by the students parents, it was seemingly obvious that Biddlebaum had ulterior motives,


and was some sort of pedophile. Because of the societys lack of respect towards a man who was able to teach their kids in a rare way, Biddlebaum was believed to be a sick man, when in fact, all he was trying to accomplish was to share dreams and to help others to do the same. The societys lack of understanding Biddlebaums intentions lead to an ultimate deterioration of a respectable man.


In Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew, it is again seen how focusing only on the perceived wrong in people can lead to the blatant ignoring of the potential good. While Bianca is highly sought after by suitors, her father makes the rule that Bianca can only get married when her eldest sister, Kate, is married as well. Kate is seen by society as a disobedient shrew. Gremio, trying to be persuaded by Hortensio to court Kate, speaks “Thinkest thou, Hortensio, though her father be very rich, any man is so very a fool to be married to hell!” It takes one brave soul, named Petruchio, who matches Kate in stubbornness and wit. His goal is to “tame” Kate, by neglecting her and treating her badly until she realizes that her hateful nature is one to be discarded. In the end, Kate surprises everyone by her profound sense of obedience to her husband. In Petruchios success at seeing past Kates spiteful front, he turned her


potential into a rewarding and obedient wife. Taming of the Shrew is a prime example of how looking for the inherent good in people reaps its benefits.


Throughout all these famous literary works, Othello, The Scarlet Letter, “Hands”, and Taming of the Shrew, it is obvious to see that although perception may render an intrinsic evil, often this evil screens society from seeing the inherent good that people possess. Society must be able to look past the sins and perceived misdeeds and rely on the inner sense of right that comes with all humanity.


Please note that this sample paper on "Tainted Perception" is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on "Tainted Perception", we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on "Tainted Perception" will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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VOEST - Vereinigte Österreichische Stahlwerke AG (United Austrian Iron and Steel Works)

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VÖEST � Vereinigte Österreichische Eisen- und Stahlwerke AG


(United Austrian Iron and Steel Works)


The letters „VÖEST“ mean Vereinigte Österreichische Eisen- und Stahlwerke AG. If you translate these words literally it is United Austrian Iron and Steel Works Inc.


The listed voestalpine AG based in Linz (Upper Austria) is the Group holding. The voestalpine Group is one of the largest industrial undertakings in Austria and employs a work force of around 17,000. Sales in the past financial year was about EUR 4.4 billions. The Group is developing into a processing enterprise on the basis of its core competence in steel.


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The voestalpine Group is divided in four divisions, namely


· voestalpine Stahl Division


· voestalpine Railway Systems Division


· voestalpine Profilform Division


· voestalpine motion division


The VÖEST supplies a lot of branches, for example 6% of its sales derive from automotive industry. Other branches which are supplied by the VÖEST are the white products industry, the construction sub-supply industry, steel and mechanical engineering. Also railway companies and the oil and gas industry obtain products from the United Austrian Iron and Steel Works. The products of the VOEST are delivered to numerous European states (Austria, Germany, Belgium, UK, Italy, France, Sweden, Czech Republic) and the USA.


History


Already in 1881 the Alpinemontan cooperation was established. At the turn of the last century Donawitz was the site of the largest iron works in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


After the second world war in 145 the VÖEST was founded. In the following year the Austrian Government decided to nationalise the VÖEST.


In the following decades there were a lot of mergers for example the FALPINE MONTAN AG and VÖEST AG merge to become VÖEST-ALPINE AG in 17. However also some subsidiaries were spun off and become independent legal entities for example the VOEST-ALPINE STAHL DONAWITZ Ges.m.b.H. was spun-off from VOEST-ALPINE AG.


Because of the initial public offering of the VOEST-ALPINE STAHL AG all partitions, who do not belong to the core business were sold in 15.





The OIAG


The four letters stand for “Österreichische Industrieholding AG”. It is the holding and privatization agency of the Republic Austria. This agency works closely with the industry and does not belong to any political party of Austria.


Its business objective is to achieve an appreciation in value of the companies the OIAG has a holding in. But the OIAG has also the job to privatize a company in the best interests of the company concerned, the Austrian economy and the Austrian taxpayer if there is an instruction of the Republic of Austria.


Privatization of VOEST


On th of May 00 the government of Austria has placed an order with the OIAG to fully privatize the VOEST. The conditions were that the bigger part of the shares remains in possession of Austria institutional investors and that VOEST persists as an unity. Further conditions were to continue doing researching and developing in Austria and that decisions are made in Austrian headquarters.


On 11th of September the OIAG published detailed information about the disposition of VOEST. The sale comprises a secondary equity offering and an offering of bonds exchangeable into voestalpine AG shares.


The equity offering includes a public offering in Austria and an international offering to institutional investors.


The shares underlying the exchangeable offering have a value of 15% of the total capital of VOEST and are exclusively sold to Austrian investors. The sale of theses shares will take place in 006.


On 1th of September the holdings of the OIAG in the VOEST were sold on the stock market. There were sold about 7.7 Mio shares, but the demand was considerably higher. Reportedly the issue was oversubscribed by more than 00%. This is a contradiction of repeated recent reports that demand for voestalpine stock had been low.


The price per share was € .50, this amount is six times higher than the price that was predicted in March this year. The proceeds of the sale of shares were about € 47 millions, further the OIAG takes about € 45 millions through the sale of convertible bonds.


The pattern of distribution of shares is as follows. Over 60% of the shares were sold to Austrian investors. The bigger part was sold to institutional shares, but also small shareholders have got shares of the company now. It is enjoyable, that the employee participation increased to 10.4%. There is no other Austrian company which has such a high employee participation.


Because the bigger part of shares are in Austrian hands, the unity of the company can be preserved in the long term. Much that it is also granted that the research, development and the decision making can be arranged in Austria. Thus, the conditions of the Republic Austria that were demanded on the OIAG in reference to the privatization are fulfilled.


Through the completed privatization there is no more uncertainty about disposition and the political debates are over now. The successful company can focus there energy on the production of steel. Because of the great success the VOEST do not have to focus on quantity any longer the company can operate their production towards “what to make from steel”. The success of the company is clearly to see, if you look up the figures in the balance sheet of the year 00/00. In this balance sheet year the voestalpine could make the second best operating result in its history. The sales were about € 4.4 billions and the profit was € millions. Naturally the amount per share increased, in fact € 1. per share. A part of the profit was distributed, the dividend amounts € 1. per share.





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Organizational Behavior

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Problem


1. Define the factors that impact the success of a work team


Many factors go into the definition of our work team. In our team the members have been working together for two years so there is a bond within the team. This factor enables the team to work efficiently while having good range of diverse views. Also within the team are individuals who have been given recognition for their outstanding work. This helps the team a lot because it shows that the team is not only a strong union but also very dedicated to their work. The team is also very diverse composing of men and women as well as people of different ethnicity. The team is also composed of different religious groups. The different religious groups can cause problem sometimes because if something was to go wrong with a conversation it would ruin relationships but since the team members have been mostly been working together for quite awhile it won’t affect the success of the work team. Within the team there is a wide spectrum of skills; each member is highly trained in his or her field and is eager to learn from one another. In order to perform effectively, the abilities of our members are crucial. Because of the fact that role of each member is understood, everyone has to contribute in order for a project to go on. Anything missing will be traced back to each and individual member. Having being together for two years, team chemistry is solid. Members of the teams are able to complement each other and cover up for another’s strengths and weaknesses. The time together has also bought together everyone and helped establish a strong relationship bond. Everyone enjoys working together and being in each other’s presence. There are three contextual factors that will impact the success of the team � Adequate Resources, Leadership and structure, and performance evaluation and reward system. Because of our pass success, the company recognizes it and constantly rewards the men and women of our team. The company also makes all resources available to this team because it knows that we will make good use of it. Although there is a project leader on this team and all the other teams, this team specially is more team oriented. The majority of the time, the group comes together to make the important decisions. Once in a while and in only special cases do the leaders make the decisions by him or herself. This type of system promotes self-management and the results are so far spectacular. Also by doing so, team members assume leadership roles naturally. They are able to bear more responsibility and carry more burdens. The company, recognizing how effective this style of team work, allows the team to exercise complete control over themselves. Overall, this team has a common purpose, everyone clearly knows what he or she has to do and what goals needs to be establish to achieve success.


. Now that each team has a new project leader, describe the process of creating trust in the new leader.


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A big reason why this team has enjoyed the success is its trust in each other and the leader. There are 5 key points that trust consists of Integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty and openness. Each member of the group recognized how important it is to have it in increasing measures. By transferring project leads, the director is hoping to establish the success to the entire scope of the company. Modeling after the most successful team, the director transfers a leader from the lowest performing team and transferring the leader from the highest performing. In the case of the poor performance team, the new leader is experience and highly skilled in his department. In order to gain trust in him by his team members, he should practice openness. By showing them that he knows what he is doing, members will follow suit and learn from it. The team leader should be fair to all and not favor one over another. Let them know that each member is a crucial part of the team and let them contribute to the team. To be a good leader, one must be able to relate to his members. By sharing feelings, fellow members will better relate to the leader and will be able to bond with one another. A leader must always start out with the truth. Everyone all know too well the story of the boy who cried wolf. One must also be consistent in what they say. A leader is one who is constantly standing up for his values and beliefs. Members will see that in a leader and put their trust in him. They will depend on their leaders more they see that the leader is consistent with his beliefs. Leaders who make a promise and fulfill it will command great respect from his followers. These leaders are ones who are confident in what they say and do. By maintaining confidence in yourself it will eventually trickle down to the team members. They will believe in themselves knowing that they can rely on the leader when necessary. A leader is someone who can step up when necessary, one who will fill in the gap where there is. By practicing professionalism, you show your members that you have the ability to lead. By practicing these key points, everyone in the team will gain trust in their leader.


. What are the models of leadership to quantify the skills of a leader?


The Fiedler Model-


The quality of a leader is determined through a measurement of his/her style or personality at managing. A leader can be one who is concerned for production or concern for people and even be a combination of the two. The Fiedler Model attempts to assess a leader’s ability using the least preferred co-worker questionnaire. The questionnaire uses 16 questions to determine the style of a particular leader. Then it matches the leader with the three situational factors �


1. Leader member relations


. Task structure


. Position power


According to the findings, the concern of leader for production and/or people determines how strong he/she is in the three situational factors. Studies show the concern for production usually leads to unconcern for people and vice versa.


Leader � participation Model �


The leader participation model seeks to describe leadership behavior in relation to vary demands for activities. The founders of the model, Vroom and Yetton, provided a set of rules that identifies 5 alternative leadership styles. Recently the 5 styles were expanded to 1. The 1 styles determine the characteristics of a leader, where or not he/she makes decisions by him or herself or with sharing the problem with the group.


4. The Director made the abrupt decision to transfer the project leads. What does this decision tell you about the power in the department?


The power that the director is exercising by changing project leads is largely legitimate power. The director is in a higher position than the leaders of the software teams and has authority to change leads whether or not the leaders like it or not. The director has some expert power provided that he has years of experience in the field. However, the field of technology is constantly changing and while he specialized in it, his knowledge is no longer as applicable as it once was. His hope for better production is a legitimate one. In the current and expanding state of the software division and company overall, it wouldn’t be too much of a risk to do so. With any luck the outcome might likely be very beneficial on the long run. Since our teams are mostly self-managed, there is very little coercive power. Teams themselves decide on who to hire and how to implement their work. Although the director is much higher up in the hierarchy, the way the company is structured, team members have no fear of getting fired or their salaries being reduced. There is also no reward power, rewards and recognition are decided by team and leaders rather than director is executives. While the teams are closely knitted, there is very little inter-organizational relationship in the company. Employees do not have a strong relationship than with those in their own and neighboring teams. Thus, there is also very little if not no referent power at all.





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Nanophase Marketing strategies

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Nanophase Technologies Corporation


What is the market strategy of Nanotechnology during the time of the case?


Nanophase Technologies is an industry-leading nanocrystalline materials innovator and manufacturer with an integrated family of nanomaterial technologies. Its market strategy can be explained as under


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Target market Even though Nanophase started as a research and development unit and its major revenues came from government research contracts, it transited itself from an R & D unit to a commercial enterprise. Thus, its target market were the businesses which were involved in manufacturing and production of products in diverse processes like personal care, sunscreens, abrasion-resistant applications, environmental catalysts, antimicrobial products, and a variety of polishing applications, including semiconductors, hard disk drives, and optics. Out of these the largest product market for Nanophase was zinc-oxide powder, which is used as an inorganic ingredient in sunscreen, cosmetic and other health care products produced by the BASF cosmetic chemicals group. Sales to BASF cosmetic chemical group accounted for 75.5% of Nanophase’s revenue. Besides this, Zinc-oxide is also used as an ingredient in Dr. Scholl’s foot spray to act as a fungicide and prevent the nozzle from clogging. The company expects the market potential for its products in this sector (health care and cosmetics) to be about $45million.


Product Nanophase makes use of nanotechnology to produce nanocrystalline particles in powder form using metallic materials such as aluminum, cerium, copper, iron and zinc.


The two of the most important technologies Nanophase uses are Physical Vapor Synthesis (PVS) and Discrete Particle Encapsulation (DPE). It is because of the PVS process that Nanophase is able to produce nanoparticles with properties that are highly desirable to customers. These properties help the product create features like spherical, nonporous particles of uniform size and large surface area, particles virtually free of chemical residues and particles that flow freely without clustering together.


The DPE process provides nanoparticles specific characteristics such as preventing the particles from sticking together or enabling them to be dispersed in a fluid or polymer to meet the specific customer needs.


Besides this, the company also uses the PVS process and the NanoArc Synthesis ™ to custom-size the particles for a customer’s application.


Thus, from the above we can clearly see that the Nanophase is a customer centric company and is always trying to match the needs of its customers.


Nanophase produced chemicals and materials that added quality to the products the manufacturer (Nanophase’s customer) produced. At the same time its products had other benefits like it helped reduce the cost of producing the final products for the manufacturer, improve customer satisfaction etc. This statement can be justified by using some of the chemicals and materials Nanophase produced, as an example and understanding their attributes. This has been explained below


Nanophase produced zinc-oxide powder as an inorganic ingredient in sunscreens, cosmetics and other health care products produced by the BASF cosmetic chemical group. These zinc-oxide formulations when added to sunscreen the specially designed particles allowed harmless light to pass through the sunscreen while the ultraviolet light bounces off the particles and never reaches the skin. This is an example of the quality products Nanophase produces.


Nanophase also helps manufacturers to decrease their manufacturing cost by replacing the expensive palladium chemical to cerium dioxide, (a cheaper chemical), which is used in the converters to reduce exhaust emissions in cars.


Nanophase also provides manufacturers with the technology which is used to make transparent sunscreens into ingredients for coatings designed to improve the scratch resistance of high gloss floor coatings, vinyl flooring and counter tops. Apparently, nanoparticles fit so tightly together that they make vinyl flooring up to five times more scratch resistant than existing products. This helps increase customer satisfaction and also improve quality of the products.


Promotion Nanophase made extensive use of direct marketing strategy in order to increase demand for its products and also identify potential customers. The company’s CEO believed that in order to be successful it was very important that Nanophase have a very close relationship with its customers.


It is very important that customer expectation be met or else it would be very difficult for the company to survive in the long run especially in the future when the competition will be massive. Hence, the company formed teams to identify an unsatisfied need and apply the company’s proprietary technology and products to solve a problem. The company was also engaged in ongoing research, technology licensing and strategic alliances to expand revenue.


The company also used a business development team to work on nanotechnology applications with new customers. The activities of this team included evaluation and qualification of potential markets, identifying the lead customer in each market and the development of a strategy to successfully penetrate a market.


Such teams helped the company form a partnership with its customers to create solutions to customer problems, meet their expectations and satisfy their needs, improve relationship with them and intern try and retain a customer in the long run.


Besides this, the company also made optimum utilization of opportunities of a prospective customer. For instance when a customer made inquiries through different media sources, the company followed up on these inquires to determine the needs of a customer and tried to solve his problem by proving a nanotechnology solution. The company also developed its website in order to use emarketing as a tool to inform potential and existing customers about its latest innovations and services. Besides this, the company also used sampling as a strategy to market its products. The company permitted the potential customers to experiment with small research samples of nanoparticles. Hence, the company never left any opportunity to wholly market its product to a potential customer.


Place (distribution) Since the company was marketing its products directly to the customer especially in the home market (domestic market), it was selling its products directly to the customer. The company organizes tradeshows, presentation, technical conferences etc to market its products and also sell its products to the customers.


In the international market (and some selected domestic market) the company was selling its products through trained agents and distributors. Since the company’s products were made from nanotechnology it was very important that distributors and agents have the adequate knowledge before selling the products. Therefore, proper training was essential. The company tries to use experienced sales agents in selected markets as they believe that this is a fast and cost effective way of increasing the company’s sales.


Besides this, Nanophase has its own website (www.nanophase.com) which is used as a very important source to market its products and also increase sales of its products. The company has different sections in the website which gives information about the various products of the company along with its attributes. Hence, it proves to be a very useful tool for selling products to the potential customers.


Price Nanophase presently, does not face a situation where the competition in the market is so intense that the competitors will have to cut prices. Besides this there is no doubt that any firm using nanotechnology will have to go through very heavy research and development cost. Also, a well trained staff both for manufacturing and selling the product are also key essentials for any company to improve the quality of its products and meet customer expectations. Thus, nantechnological products would be priced at a premium rate.


Since Nanophase has its advantage of being the only firm which is capable of producing substantial quantities of nanoparticles to rigid quality standards and the company is also acknowledged by industry peers as the world leader in commercialization of nanomaterials it can price its products at a very high price. But since the company is making losses since the last few years because of the recession in the economy the company cannot charge very high prices. Besides this, Nanophase clearly knows that the future competition is going to be very intense as companies with better technical and financial resources will be entering the market. Thus, it is very important that the company try and retain customer loyalty to face future competition. The company does not want to be in a situation where it is loosing potential customers because the prices of the Nanophase products are very high. Therefore, even though the company is providing excellent quality products, with excellent customer satisfaction it cannot charge very high prices.


The products Nanophase sells are premium products but looking at the present market scenario it is not possible for the company to charge equally premium prices.





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Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Pichwai paintings of Nathdwara

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PICHWAI PAINTINGS OF NATHDWARA


Location


Nathdwara, a sleepy ,dusty ,small town set on a hill some 50kms(0 miles) from Udaipur,is the scene of most lush and vibrant visual art forms in India , Pichwai paintings.


History


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In the 17th century ,when Aurangzeb prohibited the worship of images, Hindu devotees in Mathura , home of Lord Krishna ,became fearful that their sacred statues might be smashed & decided to take them to safer locations.


The images of Sri Nathji were loaded on a chariot and sent on its way to Mewar.At Sikar, a wheel of the chariot sank deep into the sand and it couldn’t be removed despite reapeated efforts.This was interpreted as a sign that the image wanted to dwell at that place and the priests decided that it should stay.


A temple was built for the idol and the village came to be known as Nathdwara , “home of Sri Nathji” or Lord Krishna.


Pichwai paintings


Pichwai literally means that which hangs behind. They are the backdrops setting the mood and religious significance of each ritualized scene.They are basically 4 iconographic renderings of the Krishna legend traditionally portrayed in the Nathdwara Pichwais.Each image is linked with a particular festival or holy day.


For eg


Gokulashtami, will have Krishna playing the flute to the assembled gopas, gopis & cows.


Dana Ekadashi, the taking of the toll or dana from the gopis & the breaking of the pots.


The paintings not only form a devotional backdrop for the temple, but also serve the purpose of outlining the religious stories to a largely illiterate population.They delight the eyes with the richness of colour and delicacy of execution.


Style of Pichwais


Pichwais , were traditionally done in a variety of media brocaded, blockprinted, embroidered, or worked in gold. In Nathdwara, however, a rich tradition of painted Pichwais grew. They are done on handspun cloth, sized with starch & painted in pigments derived from natural vegetables and mineral colours. They are also mixed with starch ,giving the Pichwais its charactersic strong smell. They have a stylized, rather static format with frozen figures set in idyllic landscape of brilliant green trees , midnight blue skies which sun, moon, stars, forked lightning, all shine together amidst fluffy white clouds; peacocks, parrots & monkeys in flowering fields and swans & storks, fish and turtles swim in Lotus-strewn silver waters.


This is the Indian conception of paradise known as Braj, unlike the bleak, beige Rajasthani landscape. These depict Krishna, the blue boy-God; Radha & gopis play; dance & make love; a pictorial allegory of the soul’s yearning for union with the divine.


Present Scenario


The Pichwai tradition is carried on and its not only devotees of Srinathji who buy the cloth scrolls painted by today’s descendants of Raja RajSingh’s original court painters. The Pichwai has also become a tourist souvenir. They tend to now be painted with chemical fabric paints that have taken the palce of Indigo, Cochineal, Lapiz & Orpiment. Like many other forms of craft, Pichwai paintings are also slowly changing their form, influenced by the fast pace of today’s life. They are gradually travelling out from temples to adrn the walls of homes of those who consider themselves to be the patron of art and craft.


Smaller sizes are constantly being made to satisfy the demand. They are done on lengths of silk, ornaments etc and are painted in rich dark hues.


Rates


Available on silk and synthetic silk, prices range from 00/- to 0,000/-. These paintings have very strong religious traditions. And the artist who works on them considers himself to be the servant of the Lord and puts in SHRADDHA or devotion on each Pichwai that he paints, though its now done for commercial use too.





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